Emotions are innate and adaptive processes that entail the appraisal of life situations for one's well being and a readiness to act to sustain the state of well being (e.g., Barrett & Campos, 1987; Lazarus, 1991). The occurrence of emotion, especially of a basic emotion, usually elicits spontaneous facial expressions. Further, within a social context, an individual's internal emotion state is routinely inferred from their facial expressions, behaviors, and speech. Thus, the ability to display context appropriate emotions even when they are incongruent with internally experienced emotions is clearly valuable in social interactions.
[...] Emotional development in early childhood: A social relationship perspective. In R.J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H.Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 295-408). London: Oxford University Press Ekman, P., Friesen, W., & Ellsworth, P. (1972). Emotion in the human face. NewYork: Pergamon. Ekman, P., Roper, G., & Hager, J. C. (1980). Deliberate facial movement. Child Development 267-271. Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., & Karbon, M. (1994). The relations of children's emotion regulation to their vicarious emotional responses and comforting behaviors. [...]
[...] However, it is unclear if this developmental trend exists in their use of display rules. More research on how developmental processes are associated with children's explicit knowledge about their own use of display rules is needed. Possibly, knowledge of own display rule use in children coincides with the development of empathy, self-conscious emotions, and emotional understanding. How Children Differ on Display Rules Any study of display rules from a developmental perspective would be incomplete without the consideration of individual variability. [...]
[...] Feldman, R., Jenkins, L., & Popoola, O. (1979). Detecting deception in adults and children via facial expressions. Child Development 350-355. Garner, P. W., & Power, T. G. (1996). Preschoolers' emotional control in the disappointment paradigm and its relation to temperament, emotional knowledge, and family expressiveness. Child Development 1406-1419. Gnepp, J., & Hess, D.L. (1986). Chidren's understanding of verbal and facial display rules. Developmental Psychology 103-108. Goldsmith, H. H., & Campos, J. J. (1982). Toward a theory of infant temperament. In R.N. Emde & [...]
[...] Future Directions The preceding discussion focused on describing developmental influences on the acquisition and use of display rules in children and reviewed some sources of variability. However, much of the research detailed in this paper was related specifically to disappointment. Since it is very plausible that developmental patterns related to display rules for other emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, fear, anger, shame, embarrassment) differ subtly, more research involving these other emotions should be conducted. For example, age differences in the development of self-conscious emotions might affect the understanding of display rules concerning them. [...]
[...] Cultural differences in the acquisition and use of display rules have been studied, though not very widely (Cole, Bruschi, & Tamang, 2002; Cole & Tamang, 1998). Socially prescribed ways to display emotion differ across cultures. These differences are closely linked to socialization patterns and culture-specific values and beliefs. Cole and Tamang (1998) explored children's' years) ideas about emotional display in two different Nepali cultures- Tamang and Chhetri-Brahmin. The significant cultural differences that emerged appeared to be related to socialization processes. [...]
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