The study of intelligence within the scientific community is not a new development. Symbolically, the study of intelligence is related to research in the cognitive domain. The cognitive domain refers to the knowing domain. That is why when knowledge is imparted, the objective is to ensure that the recipient is familiar with the cognitive aspects of the knowledge gained. In this area of intelligence, the cognitive field refers to the mode of thinking that controls memory and directs problem solving (quantitative and qualitative skills) aspects of the brain. However, in the last sixty years many psychologists have researched the non-cognitive intelligence and this area is presently gaining momentum. The non-cognitive intelligence domain involves emotional understanding, empathy, and compassion. This non-cognitive field of intelligence is commonly known as emotional intelligence. In 1937 Robert Thorndike researched "social intelligence", and highlighted that social intelligence is the precursor to modern research in emotional intelligence. Then in 1940 the distinguished psychologist, David Wechsler, conducted an intense study that stated "non-intellective abilities" is a crucial element as it helps predict the success of individuals in life. In the early 1950s the Office of Strategic Services developed an assessment system that evaluated non-cognitive abilities. This assessment tool was first used in business by AT&T in 1956. In 1959, the psychologist John Hemphill stated that emotional balance is an important aspect in the deliverance of effective leadership. Subsequently, in the early 1990s renowned psychologists such as David R. Caruso, Peter Salovey, John Mayer, and Daniel Goleman brought emotional intelligence to the forefront of management and intellectual theory. Today emotional intelligence is of great importance to numerous businesses and social applications.
[...] Given comparable size, companies whose CEOs exhibited more EI competencies showed better financial results as measured by both profit and growth”.3 A popular misconception in many organizations is that intellectual intelligence and experience are the most important qualities required of a manager. However, as stated a recent study showed “emotional intelligence competencies (such as vision, building relationships, and developing people) are more important to leadership success than typical leadership competencies, such as external/market orientation, financial acumen and planning”.1 While concern for subordinates' emotions has quickly become one of the staples of management theory, managers must always consider the goals and mission of the organization. [...]
[...] According to Steven Hein, this branch of emotional intelligence is capacity for emotional literacy; being able to label specific feelings in yourself and others; being able to discuss emotions and communicate clearly and directly”.7 Individuals with high emotional intelligence are able to accurately express and perceive emotions. The ability to express the proper emotion(s) at the appropriate time is paramount to this branch of emotional intelligence. Feelings, states, and thoughts are used to convey what the individual's emotions are, and these emotions can be perceived through languages, sounds, appearances, and behaviors. [...]
[...] Emotional Intelligence in a Global Context A person with high emotional intelligence understands what makes humans different. This is particularly important to managers when conducting business in the global economy. When interacting across cultures, understanding group behaviors and dynamics is the first step in understanding the member's individual emotional behavior. Just as a one would seek out the cultural customs of their foreign counterpart, understanding the emotions of counterparts is just as important. Understanding one's own emotional qualities is important as well, and research has shown that a person's own social comfort (or perceived success) is inversely related to their ability to make sense of, and find acceptance by cultural strangers.5 Conclusion: Managerial Relevance Goleman believes, “bosses and leaders, in particular, need high EI because they represent the organization to the public, they interact with the highest number of people within and outside the organization and they set the tone for employee morale”.4 Of all the emotional elements included in emotional intelligence, some argue that empathy may be the most important. [...]
[...] Caruso, Peter Salovey, John Mayer, and Daniel Goleman brought emotional intelligence to the forefront of management and intellectual theory. Today emotional intelligence is of great importance to a multitude of business and social applications. Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence According to Caruso and Salovey, emotional intelligence has been broken down into four branches. These range from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. They believe that most of the branches appear early in development, and as a child grows, the more complex branches emerge. [...]
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