An integrated and flexible counseling approach is outlined, which calls for competency in a number of techniques in order to serve a number of clients. Personality structure, motivation, and human development are discussed, addressing biological and environmental differences that account for individual differences. Health and illness are defined, with reference to spiritual need and a relationship with God. Illness is defined as possibly coming from a variety of sources, manifesting in a variety of ways, requiring a wide selection of appropriate interventions which can be used with or without spiritual elements. Effectiveness is established through empirical research and case studies. This flexible counseling approach fits with a worldview that understand the diversity that exists among people and their problems. Secular counseling can be a great help to non-Christian and Christian clients. Adding a spiritual dynamic to counseling can give more depth and understanding to the process for Christian clients as well as non-Christian clients, if the counselor has the skills in determining the appropriate amount of integrating psychological theories with Biblical and spiritual dynamics.
[...] person, namely personality, motivation, development, mental health and illness, among other. can gain knowledge about the nature and functioning of human beings both from scripture and from science” (Entwistle p. 135). Delineation of Personality Structure Personality can be shaped by many environmental factors, such as family, socioeconomic status, and even biological factors. As a living being with a soul, however, some elements of personality are inherent and resistant to change, if not unchangeable. Hawkins' concentric circles model illustrates the many systems that surround and influence a person, including personality, which is represented by the innermost circle. [...]
[...] Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. Garzon, Fernando. (2005). Interventions that Apply Scripture in Pychotherapy. Journal of Psychology and Theology 113-121. Garzon, F., and Burkett, L. (2002). Healing of memories: models, research, and future directions. Journal of Psychology and Christianity 42-49. Hart. A. D. (1999). The Anxiety Cure. Nashville, TN: W Publishing Group. Hawkins, R. E. (Speaker). (2006). Model for guiding the counseling process. Lynchburg, VA: Liberty University. McMinn, M. R. (1996). [...]
[...] Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. Carol Stream, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishing, Inc. Reed, H., Burkett, L., and Garzon, F. (2001). Exploring forgiveness in psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy in Independent Practice 1-16. Wilson, S.D. (2001). Hurt People Hurt People: Hope and Healing for Yourself and Your Relationships. Grand Rapids, MI: Discovery House Publishers GRADING GUIDELINE FOR PERSONAL THEORY PAPER COUN 507/PACO 600 Theology and Spirituality in Counseling The following represents an additive template for grading. Instead of beginning with 100 and losing points for errors, you begin with a 0 and earn points for your work In determining your grade, three questions will be asked. [...]
[...] In calmer times, a healthy person will feel content with the significance and security of a healthy relationship with God, eliminating the need to find sources of fleeting significance and security, such as in monetary gain or career success. Health in relationships is also an important concept. With security and significance, one is more able to accept one's own attitudes, beliefs, and feelings as their own. Through accepting such responsibilities, relationships can function among necessary boundaries between two complete, healthy people, as Cloud and Townsend recommend (1999). [...]
[...] Relation of Theory to a Comprehensive Worldview A flexible integrated counseling theory is pliable enough to be used appropriate in situations where Christian techniques may or may not be appropriate, but with the understanding that Christian counseling technique would be most complete and effective. The world contains a wide variety of people, who experience a wide variety of problems coming from any number of sources, which can usually be assigned to one of Hawkins' concentric circles (2006). A generic approach to all problems will surely lead to frustration for both parties involved, as illness can only be cured when the source is identified and eradicated. [...]
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