Within psychology, many different fields exist. Development, social, and abnormal psychology are considered distinct disciplines within the field, and those who specialize in one discipline rarely spend time in the study of another. Counseling is a substrate of abnormal psychology, focusing on identifying and repairing problematic emotional states, behaviors, and relationships. The identification, or diagnosis, of these problems if most often categorized in conjunction with the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR), which sets specific criteria for different diagnoses.
While formal diagnosis is often necessary for a variety of reasons, in many cases it can be limiting, especially in cases of disorders that are not black and white; present or not present, but can fit into a spectrum.
[...] By studying normative attachment at a neurological level, researchers have concluded that self-organization of the developing brain occurs in the context of a relationship with another self, another brain” (Schore & Schore p. 13). “Animal research and infant studies confirm that neuroanatomy, neurochemical events, and observable behaviors are modified by early interactions with caregivers” (Corbin p. 542). Sensory deprivation research has shown that narrow windows of opportunity exist for the brain to develop certain functions such as vision and hearing (Corbin, 2007). [...]
[...] Treatment Option: Behavior Analysis Behavioral interventions are a proven way to treat a variety of behavior problems, and behaviorists view attachment disorder behaviors as stemming from “problem children us[ing] coercive behavior beyond the toddler years to gain more immediate gratification (positive reinforcement) or to avoid/escape unpleasant demands or situations (negative reinforcement)” (Golden p. 454). Behaviorist researchers speculate that these behaviors lead to criminal behavior and alcoholism later in life with continued inadvertent reinforcement of deviancy (Golden, 2007). Behaviorist treatment can be described in opposition to traditional psychotherapy. [...]
[...] Her name was Candace. The Rocky Mountain News. Golden, J. (2007). Children with behavioral and emotional problems: Is their behavior explained only by complex learning? Or do internal motives have a role? International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 449-476. Heller, S.S., Boris, N.W., Fuselier, S., Page, T., Koren-Karie, N., & Miron, D. (2006). Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: From 18 months to 8 years. Attachment and Human Development, 63-86. Reinert, D.F. & Edwards, C.E. (2009). Attachment theory, [...]
[...] Attachment Theory Attachment theory is primarily a developmental theory, which is why it is not included in the DSM, but many researchers agree that other varieties of attachment disturbances exist, which practitioners should be aware of (Zilberstein, 2006). Attachment theorists also criticize the DSM nosology because it “places the criteria for the diagnosis squarely on a child's aberrant social behavior rather than on attachment” (Zilberstein p. 56). Other criticism includes the DSM's exclusion of children with pathological attachment relationships and its lack of criteria for RAD symptoms in older children, which could be mistakenly diagnosed with other disorders (Zilberstein, 2006). [...]
[...] The second category, called disordered attachment, is characterized by a child who has an attachment figure, but the relationship involves intense and pervasive conflict, which creates inhibition, self- endangerment, and role-reversal behaviors in the child. The third category, disrupted attachment disorder, is the result of the sudden loss of an attachment figure. This category is not pathological, but is does have a great impact on the child. These categories are not exclusive: a child can meet the criteria for more than one (Zilberstein, 2006). [...]
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