China is emerging today as one of the major global economies thanks to its dynamic business activity and a large working population. China is known in the world for its various ceremonies and etiquette dating from the first emperors. It is necessary to understand the basic Chinese cultural, ethical and business values in order to conduct business successfully in this country. To understand the cultural profile of China we must analyse the key concepts and values of this culture, based on Confucianism, referred to as Guanxi, Mianxi, and Keqi by linking them to the dimensions of Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars and Edward Hall. France is one of the largest Western European developed countries with the sixth-largest economy in the world. It is a nation known for its past with legacies dating from the Declaration of The Rights of Man and of The Citizen to the creation of the European Union. The country benefits from a wealth of landscape and identities influenced by centuries of cultural and historical amalgamation. France is a nation that experiences an immense pride in its history and unique culture in various domains like arts, literature or philosophy. Its cultural identity plays a crucial role in the business culture of the country, where appropriate conduct, mutual trust and understanding are very important.
[...] Individualism and individuality In France, individuality is considered an important cultural characteristic that describes a passion for freedom of opinion and uniqueness, in society but also in business. Individualism is a slightly different concept, but equally important, that refers to the sense of place one should have in society. In business in France, individualism illustrates the fact that a great concern is given to social status and judgement as an individual not as a group. The concepts of individualism and individuality help us to define other orientations of the French culture, based on Hofstede, Trompenaars and Hall theories: Individualism orientation: this concept describes societies in which the ties between individual are not strong: each person is expected to look after himself and his immediate relatives. [...]
[...] (2007), Culture Smart China : A quick guide to customs and etiquette, London, Kuperard Tomalin B., (2006), Culture Smart France : A quick guide to customs and etiquette, London Kuperard Hofstede, G. (1994), Cultures and Organizations, Broché Twitchell Hall, E. (1997), Beyond Culture, Broché www.communicaid.com / China www.communicaid.com / France www.geert-hofstede.com / China www.gert-hofstede.com / France www.wikipedia.fr / Guanxi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_shock Appendix 1 hofstede analysis China Graphic nº 1 Graphic nº 2 Graphic nº 3 Appendix 2 hofstede analysis France Graphic nº 1 Graphic nº 2 Source : www.geert-hofstede.com / China Source : www.geert-hofstede.com / France Appendix 3 culture shock between China and France Previously in this report, we have defined a series of dimensions that could apply to the Chinese culture and the French culture. [...]
[...] This French philosophy has existed over many centuries and is still very strong in the way to conduct business or behave in society. Part 3 : the culture shock between China and France During this report we have tried to analyze the Chinese culture and the French culture by defining a series of dimensions that could apply to the general behaviour of people from these cultures. When comparing these dimensions (see appendix we have noticed that these two countries might enter in cultural shock over every point. [...]
[...] To analyze this culture shock, we are going to analyze this business meeting phase by phase: Introduction : while presenting themselves, the Chinese will show a strong interest in the person, taking a long look to the business card and trying to position him in the hierarchy of the company. They will bounce and not shake hands, they will avoid eye contact. On the opposite, French people will shake hands, look for eye contact, and express themselves loudly. They will use space differently and avoid any personal questions. [...]
[...] Collectivism orientation: the low individualism ranking of China is manifest in a close and committed member ‘group' such as family, extended family, or relationships. Loyalty in a collectivism culture is mandatory. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their groups. Polychronic culture: Guanxi describes a set of relationships that has been built over time. For example, someone can ask for a favor today in return of a favor he has done twenty years ago. [...]
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