Charlemagne's coronation as emperor at St. Peter's Basilica heralded a new era for the West and for the Byzantine Empire. Charlemagne became the strong leader at the helm and his missi dominici kept a watchful eye on territories that were far away. The governments of France and England could not have been more different, yet each nation-state was successful in attaining great power. They would later clash as two world powers that were nearly equal in strength. This rise to supremacy did not come easily for either state. As the High Middle Ages passed and the late Middle Ages began, change was sweeping across Europe. Formerly unified European countries began to split up as wealthy families fought for control. In Civilization in the West, the authors write that the protracted wars and maneuvers that the families conducted resembled nothing so much as the competition in feudal France (Kishlansky 294, para 3). The Black Death decimated the populations of every European country during the 1300's. Periodic outbreaks took place for over a hundred years and took a massive toll on the towns. In London, 200 people died in a single day; in Paris, the number was higher, with 800 dead in 24 hours. This caused widespread confusion resulting from a diminution of the productive power of the European peoples (Boissonnade 285, para 1).
[...] His gracious treatment of his subjects and his serious approach to the laws made Charlemagne an emperor that deserved his title France and England emerged by 1300 as the most powerful states in the West. On what did each state base its authority? Compare and contrast the governments of medieval France and England. The governments of France and England could not have been more different, yet each nation-state was successful in attaining great power. They would later clash as two world powers that were nearly equal in strength. [...]
[...] Apparently, this was not always much of an improvement for the peasantry; in his book Life and Work in Medieval Europe, P. Boissonnade writes that under Capetian rule, “urban populations were able to win only a minimum of emancipation” (196, para 2). The continued dominance of the ruling class over the poor and the working class no doubt helped solidify the power of the kings. Later, King Louis was not just diplomatic but gracious as well. He was willing to personally hear the complaints of his servants; this simple act gained “good will and devotion a precious heritage”. [...]
[...] Trade had become the new path to a status comparable to that enjoyed by the nobility In what ways did the Black Death revolutionize the social and economic structure of Europe? How were the peasant revolutions related to these changes? The Black Death decimated the populations of every European country during the 1300's. Periodic outbreaks took place for over a hundred years and took a massive toll on the towns. In London people died in a single day; in Paris, the number was higher, with 800 dead in 24 hours. [...]
[...] The common folk saw him as a hero, and in fact we know him by the admiring name they gave him: Charles the Great. The existence of Germanic kingdoms before Charlemagne's arrival also contributed to the stability of his empire. He was able to build on these previous structures and add to them as he saw fit. In some ways, the two governments were quite similar. The method of gaining wealth remained consistent; the authors of Civilization in the West note, “[s]trong kings brought victory against external foes and thus maintained the flow of booty” (Kishlansky 234, para 4). [...]
[...] The “anarchy of the monetary system” in the West was stabilized by the influence of foreign coins as the stable ducats and international coins poured in through the explosion of trade (288, para 1). Bourgeois dynasties blossomed in “banking, commercial, and industrial enterprises” (300, para 2). Kings and monarchs enlisted agents in order to participate in the wave of merchandising. Lesser traders, however, were shoved out as professional merchants created a “veritable dictatorship” over some aspects of trade (301, para 1). [...]
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