Huntington's influence in international relations (Graham 2004) necessitates a deconstruction of his, and question whether it is still applicable today. However, it is essential to define Huntington's civilization: the “...highest cultural grouping of people and the broadest level of cultural identity…” inclusive of cultural customs, religion, language and history and the people's self-identification (Huntington 1993 p. 24). The world as we know it, he argues, consists of seven (possibly eight) of these civilizations which strive to be the ultimate hegemonic power: The West - Europe, North America, and Australia; Latin American; Islamic; Japanese; Hindu; Confucian; Slavic-Orthodox; and potentially African (Huntington 1993).
According to Huntington, the Islamic world encompasses North Africa, Central Asia and the Arabian and Iberian Peninsulas. It also constitutes “Arab, Turkic, Persian and Malay” areas (Huntington in Hendrikson 2010 Para. 4). Huntington notes that “civilizations are differentiated from each other by history, language, culture, tradition, and most important, religion” (1993 p. 25). These form the base from which a civilization is generated, and mould the way in which members of these civilizations view relationships with ‘God' and man, notions of citizenship, liberty, authority and equality. According to Huntington, a smaller world has led to greater interaction between civilizations, which in turn have generated a greater awareness of these different views. These differences in opinions have oftentimes led to violence. Huntington also points out a religious revival which he ascribes to Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism and Islam, leading to an “us” versus “them” (1993 p. 28) mentality between civilizations.
[...] Sharp goes on to state that for some Islamic feminists, the concept of equality manifests itself in hijab. The wearing of the veil is a backlash against women being perceived as sexual objects, and is a motion of “liberation from the commercialisation of beauty that consumes our nation” (Khan in Sharp 2012). The escape from objectification arrives in the guise of hijab, where the cloaking of the woman's body or changing of its appearance subverts the sexual degradation placed on it by patriarchy (Mahdi 2012). [...]
[...] 28) mentality between civilizations. Islam and the West Huntington (2002) says conflict occurs between Muslim and non-Muslim countries over economic and territorial power, and due to “values and culture when a state attempts to promote or to impose its values on the people of another civilisations” (Huntington 2002 p. 2). This conflict has been evident in Islamic and Christian histories since their conception, and their enmity stems from what Huntington notes as the Western Christian concept of church and state as separate entities contrasting with Islamic practices of “uniting religion and politics” (2002 p. [...]
[...] htm. Sen, A. (2006). ‘Civilisational Confinement' in Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. London: Penguin, p. 40-58 Sharp, D. (2012). "Bridging the Disconnect: Unveiling the Hijab and Islamic Feminism." Retrieved 30/5/12, from http://www.youngchicagoauthors.org/girlspeak/features_bridging_the_disconnec t_unveiling_the_hijab_and_islamic_feminism_by_diamond_sharp.htm. US Department of State (2004). "Tunisia: International Religious Freedom Report, 2004." Retrieved 20/5/12, from http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2004/35509.htm. Sztokman, E. (2011). The Feminist Debate over France's Burqa Ban. [...]
[...] "Libya . another nation in the Islamist Path." Retrieved 20/5/2012, from http://islamonline.net/en/149. Joyner, J. (2010). "French Burqa Ban Widely Supported in Europe." Retrieved 11/6/12, from http://www.acus.org/new_atlanticist/french-burqa-ban-widely- supported-europe. LesNiqabitches (2011). Tango + Niqab. NiqaBitch, Tumblr Mahdi, H. (2012). The hijab in Nigeria, the woman's body and the feminist private/public Discourse. Gothenburg, Centre for Global Gender Studies, Gothenburg University. Malik, K. (2011). [...]
[...] Hijab is, as Mustafe says, giving back to women the ultimate control over their bodies” (in Cole 2012 Para. 3). However, the concept of gender equality in Islamic feminism is manifested in a multitude of ways, and other interpretations of veiling also occur. Self-described Islamic feminist, and director of French activist group Ni Putes Ni Soumises (Neither Whores Nor Submissive) Silhem Habchi argues firmly for the burqa ban to be upheld, stating that it ‘liberates' the Muslim community as a whole , from Islamists, as Badran (2005) explains who utilise the Quran's readings to further their own political agenda (Habchi in Malik 2010). [...]
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