Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was one of the first organizations of the developing world to effectively resist Western superpowers. Before OPEC, Western countries colonized developing nations and exploited their natural resources with little resistance from these countries. For example, in 1953 the United States used the CIA to oust the Iranian prime minister to serve US interests in maintaining control over oil (Risen).
Britain, the Americans and the Soviets occupied Iran at different periods in history to prevent Nazi Germany from obtaining oil with indifference to the political tension they caused in Iran (Graseck). US technicians planned to destroy oil wells in the Persian Gulf to prevent Germany from obtaining oil resources (Graseck), which, if executed, would have damaged the regional oil industry. The West historically colonized countries for resources with little native resistance. OPEC's resistance was spearheaded by strategic oil embargos such as the 1973 oil embargo. OPEC's drastic production cut crippled Western economies and forced Western powers to negotiate with an oil exporter rather than invade it.
OPEC's embargo in 1973 was effective, but generally organization within OPEC was sorely lacking. OPEC members differed in number of oil reserves, geography, and political interests (OPEC). Members were located from Latin America to the United Arab Emirates (Tignor 895). As a result, OPEC could not make cohesive decisions over pricing or international relations, reducing their effectiveness as an oil cartel. OPEC effectively mitigated Western power but was divided by internal disputes, which lessened its effectiveness.
[...] Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran. New York: Cornell University Press Print. Graseck, Susan, Blackadar, Andy, Kreckel, Sarah, et. al. Shifting Sands: Balancing US Interests in the Middle East. Rhode Island. Watson Institute for International Studies Print. Hershey, Robert. Urges Cut in Dependence on Foreign Oil.” New York Times Web. April 25th Ibrahim, Youssef. “Norway Raises Output, Jolting OPEC.” New York Times. December 1988. Web. April 21st Martin, Douglas. “Analysts See OPEC's Influence Waning.” New York Times. July 1982. [...]
[...] New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Print. "Trans-Arabian Pipeline." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. [...]
[...] Encyclopedia Britannica Web May Risen, James. Secrets of History: the CIA in Iran.” The New York Times. N.d. Web. April 25th “Saudis Won't Ditch OPEC for our Sake.” New York Times. July Web. April 21st Tetreault, Mary Ann. "Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Ed. Philip Mattar. 2nd ed. Vol New York: Macmillan Reference USA 1718-1721. Gale World History In Context. Web Apr.2011. Tignor, Robert, Adelman, Jeremy, Aron, Stephen, et. al. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. [...]
[...] In fact, Tudeh, the Iranian Communist Party, was reported as active in the country, threatening Western oil production in Iran and the spread of Communism (Risen). The United States' actions aligned with their interests to “power a government which would reach an equitable oil settlement, enabling Iran to become economically sound and financially solvent, and which would vigorously prosecute the dangerously strong Communist Party” (Risen). This plan would effectively interfere with Iranian politics, reshape the lives of Iranian people, and exploit Iran's economy. [...]
[...] Ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2nd ed. Vol Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA 64-68. Gale World History In Context. Web Apr Risen, James. Secrets of History: the CIA in Iran.” The New York Times. N.d. Web. April 25th “Saudis Won't Ditch OPEC for our Sake.” New York Times. July Web. April 21st Tignor, Robert, Adelman, Jeremy, Aron, Stephen, et. al. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Print. [...]
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