Hip Hop is a cultural movement integrated by 4 different elements: rap music (in both the form of the mc and the dj), graffiti and break dance. This report will explore the history of the musical side of hip hop, starting from a discussion of its beginning and origins. Hip hop has its origins in the electro-funk of pioneers like Afrika Bambaataa, who combined the techno-pop of artists like the German group Kraftwerk, with elements taken from funk and other music styles, generating a new sound from which hip hop later emerged. At that time, break dance also emerged within the movement, with a high number of B-Boys and breakers taking part in parties, dancing at the tracks played by early electro-funk and hip hop DJs, some of which had already developed a number of scratching techniques, using their vinyl records to make a wide range of sounds. This later became a characteristic feature of rap music.
Music commentators usually regard Sugarhill Gang's Rappers Delight as the first rap record.
The first political hip hop record was released in 1982. It was Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five's The Message, with lyrics like A child is born with no state of mind / Blind to the ways of mankind / God is smiling on you but He's frowning too. Influenced by Melle Mel, one of the rappers of the group, as well as by other artists, like the Lost Poets or James Brown, a number of mc's started to talk about political issues in their lyrics. The Zulu Nation, created by Afrika Bambaataa, was still very influential at that time. Its rejection of drugs and its concern with environmental issues proved to be very influential among hip hop groups.
At the time, drug use was not common among rappers, with mc's like KRS One openly criticizing drug use. In the case of the mc Chuck D, he even blatantly criticized alcohol use in songs like "One Million Bottlebags" (Kobel, 1991). At that time, hip hop fashion was a direct copy of that of some funk and glam rock groups. It was outrageous, eccentric and flamboyant. Run DMC were among the first groups that refused to follow this fashion style, wearing sneakers, jeans, and other street clothing items in their album covers and public appearances. Major rappers like KRS-One and Chuck D are some of the main prominent political mc's in hip hop's history. These two rappers deserve a special mention in this respect, as they became the most celebrated figures of the 80's conscious rap subgenre.
[...] http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2012/jan/11/fbi-wu-tang-clan- ol-dirty-bastard Ratliff, B. (1998) Eric B and Rakim's “Paid in Full” Review. http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/18/movies/pop-go-holidays-with-jazz-reggae- rap-hits-live-albums-eric-b-rakim-paid-full.html Reuters (2007) http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/07/business/07clothes.html?_r=1 Ritchie, R. (2007). "Eazy to be hard". Press Telegram. RZA (2009) “The Tao of the Wu”. Riverhead. Sanneh, Kelefa (December 3, 2000). "Rappers Who Definitely Know How to Rock". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/03/arts/music- rappers-who-definitely-know-how-to-rock.html Taylor, S. (2004). The A to X of Alternative Music. Continuum International Publishing Group. Walls, S. C. (2011) It's Good To Be Kings http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2011/08/its_good_to_be_kings.h tml Whitfield, R. G. [...]
[...] RZA's production style has influenced a number of other artists like Mobb Deep (http://www.allmusic.com/album/r212044). Amazing production from RZA was also present in some of the solo projects of other Wu Tang members, like Raekwon the Chef's “Only Built 4 Cuban Linx”, Method Man's “Tical”, and GZA's “Liquid Swords”. In contrast to the hardcore rap discussed throughout most of this report, a diversification of style took place during the early 1990's. At that time, numerous hip hop acts appeared in the scene, providing an alternative to the more aggressive hardcore rap that had previously populated the charts. [...]
[...] He brought the notion of street knowledge into hip hop. In “No Competion”, he stated: “Creator, the alphabets let's communicate When I translate the situation's straight No dictionary's necessary to use Big words do nothing but confuse and lose From the first step, a concept was kept To the end of the rhyme, it get more in-depth All thoughts I come across, my mind's the source” (http://www.blackapologetics.com/nocomp.html) During the late 1980's and early 1990's, the fusion of rap with rock became very successful, with groups like Run DMC, Public Enemy and Beastie Boys enjoying a great commercial success, with songs like Public Enemy's “Bring the Noise”, featuring Anthrax, and Run DMC's ‘Walk this Way”, featuring the Rock group Aerosmith (Sanneh, 2000). [...]
[...] This report will explore the history of the musical side of hip hop, starting from a discussion of its beginning and origins. Hip hop has its origins in the electro-funk of pioneers like Afrika Bambaataa, who combined the techno-pop of artists like the German group Kraftwerk, with elements taken from funk and other music styles, generating a new sound from which hip hop later emerged. At that time, break dance also emerged within the movement, with a high number of B-Boys and breakers taking part in parties, dancing at the tracks played by early electro-funk and hip hop DJs, some of which had already developed a number of scratching techniques, using their vinyl records to make a wide range of sounds. [...]
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