Globalisation is a complex phenomenon based on an economic dynamic of internationalisation of trade and the emergence of a single world market but that entails significant geographical, political and cultural repercussions. Indeed, the volume of international exchanges of goods has been multiplied by 16 between 1950 and 2001and the development of international trade of service since the 1970s has been even superior to the growth regarding manufacturing goods.
Then, globalisation has also meant an irreversible opening of national economic territories, sine qua non condition for the integration of the states into the world economy and to take advantage of the great single market. But in the same time, such a move has impacted traditional attributes of sovereignty in terms of economic policies, regulation of the job market and also promotion of particular cultural or political paradigms. Furthermore, globalisation has produced a new economic framework as well as a changing of scale in Europe in which the future of nations-states that has emerged against the "rest of the world" (role of the "constitutive other" in the construction of European states) has often been described as jeopardized.
[...] Simultaneously, the idea that economic power would not be compatible with isolation anymore encouraged the European construction that started with the Schuman Declaration, founding act of the European Coal and Steel Community, on 9 May 1950, and clearly claimed the desire of a political Europe governed by supranational institutions. Finally the logic of the world economy has participated in opening a new space of reflection about supranational peaceful and rational solutions to economic issues. Sovereign countries have learned to regard economy at a world level and to accept a certain number of interferences. [...]
[...] Indeed, the historical hegemony of Western European economy led to a progressive incorporation of controlled continents (Latin America and Asian harbours in the 16th century, the Caribbean in the 17th century, India and East Asia in the 18th century, Australia and Africa in the 19th century ) and the constitution of an interconnected world economy with a specific international specialisation (“colonial specialisation”) in which European countries were originally factory of the world” and the others granary of resources”. But the process speeded at the beginning of the 19th century as British Classical economists like Smith and Ricardo conceptualized the advantages (“absolute” or “comparative”) international exchanges without protectionist barriers. [...]
[...] “colonial model of international division of production” The CEEC was created to guarantee a rational use of the Marshall Plan, proposed by Marshall during his speech in Harvard University on 5 June 1947, and that gave $97 billion for the economic reconstruction of Europe. Exemplified by the tense negotiations on the Common agricultural policy or aeronautic subsidies at the WTO The role of national interests within international institutions has become the subject of the international economic politics”, theorized by economists like Kindleberger, Kehoane or Strange (Noreck, Waquet: 200). [...]
[...] But the question could be reversed and could pose the problem of the dangerous reinforcement of the focus on territory and the radicalisation of the relation to culture and religion in countries that has been partly or totally excluded from globalisation Bibliography - DICKEN P., Global Shift: Reshaping the Economic Map of the 21st century (fourth edition). London: Paul Chapman - HEALEY, MJ and ILBERY BW, Location and change: perspectives on economic geography. Oxford University Press - KNOX P. and AGNEW J., The Geography of the World Economy (third edition). [...]
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