The Japanese Self-Defense Force (SDF) was developed as a provisionary force during the Cold War and is restricted under Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution. The SDF has been under much scrutiny over the most recent decade. Debates regarding the amendment or abolition of Article 9 itself, are a source of contention in Japanese and global foreign policy. Due to the rise in global involvement in war, the Japanese government is considering changes to its national security strategy with the expansion of military force. Japanese participation in US military endeavors, such as occupation of troops in Iraq, is in particular, highly contested in the international arena. Not only is the US the central authority and developer of the Japanese Constitution, but US use of Japanese force stretches and even violates the implementation of the established statute. There is clearly a double standard present.
[...] There appears to be a generational conflict with regard to recent dealings with the Japanese Constitution. One report by BBC interviewed several individuals regarding their positions. It was found that those of the pre- WWII generation, who experienced the horror of defeat, were against changes to the Constitution, including Article 9. They did not want their children to experience war. Those of the post-WWII generation did not want to be hindered from addressing current international issues and support the amendment or abolition of the Constitution with regards to Article 9 and war policy. Any such amendments would need to be passed by both houses of the Diet, which consequently requires the consensus of representatives and most importantly, the people. [...]
[...] As a result, the US insisted that Japan rearm; Japan refused. Further efforts of the US to negotiate Japanese defense included US-Japan Security Treaty”. This allowed the US to intervene in Japan's defense as well as utilize facilities and bases in Japan. The Japanese populace was split on this decision, but the majority supported this action. With this agreement, it is implied that the US would be Japan's main defense and military supplier. However, there was an expiration date on this treaty. [...]
[...] “Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution Revisited in the Light of International Law pg. 51- Express News Service (May 06, 2008). “Chief Justice calls for global campaign of Article 9 of Japanese Constitution.” http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/chief-justice-calls-for-global- campaign-of-article-9-of-japanese-constitution/306038/. Retrieved November ABC (April 06, 2008). “History Under Siege Battles Over the Past.” http://www.abc.net.au/rn/hindsight/stories/2008/2205819.htm. Retrieved November US Department of State (September 2008). “Background Note: Japan.” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4142.htm. Retrieved November http://www.article-9.org/en/brochures/English.pdf. Retrieved November Harvard University.”The Constitution of Japan http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1947con.html. Scanned by Jonathan Dresner. Retrieved November Columbia University. [...]
[...] This perspective viewed Article 9 as a threat to Japanese independence in self-defense and dependence on US security, though it values ties with the US from a defense and economic standpoint. The LDP has always fundamentally opposed the Constitution and Article especially during the initial configuration of the 1955 system. The development of a self-defense force, however, was enough to convince the majority of all main political parties of its practicality. The 1960s through the 1970s, a rising generation saw the benefits of maintaining a peaceful, non-combative stance. [...]
[...] (2008) Retrieved October Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2008). “Japan-US Security Treaty.” http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/q&a/ref/1.html. Retrieved October Ministry of Defense (January 07, 2007). “Japan Defense Agency was upgraded to Ministry of Defense, a Cabinet-level Ministry.” http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/japan/jda.htm. Retrieved October http://www.article-9.org/en/brochures/English.pdf Nasu PDF file pg http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4142.htm In 2006, Japan's Ground Self Defense Force completed a successful two-year mission in Iraq, and the Diet extended the Anti-Terrorism Special Measures Law which allowed for Japan's Maritime Self Defense Force refueling activities in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in the Indian Ocean. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee