The 2005 elections deemed to be promising for Egypt. Hosni Mubarak had himself claimed to come out of my full conviction of the need to consolidate efforts for more freedom and democracy. The reform agenda had been initiated by the President himself, beginning with his stunning public announcement that he would ask the Majilis Al-Sha'ab to amend Article 76 of the constitution to allow for the first multi party presidential elections in Egypt's history. The NDP having more than a twenty-five year strong hold in Egypt has created much skepticism and turmoil in the lives of ordinary Egyptians. Despite Mubarak's promises, the overwhelming victory of the NDP aided by its violent suppression of oppositional elements, raises some important questions about the Egyptian political status. Numerous concerns of government interference through vote rigging and fraud during the elections was also raised. (Hala, 3) So the questions are numerous about Mubarak's so called commitment to democracy. Is it valid? Is there enough of an internal drive in Egypt to achieve real democracy? What are the hurdles to democracy in Egypt? and what can be done to remove these hurdles?
[...] For most Egyptians in their mid-twenties, Mubarak is the only major Egyptian politician they have known, and amongst many, there is a growing concern for uncertainty in the future. Furthermore, low degree of legislative and judicial freedom allows for the executive branch to carry out its ways through fury. Also low economic development, lack of government subsidies and low savings has also decreased the drive for political development amongst Egyptians. Even amongst employed and fairly affluent Egyptians, there is a lack of cohesiveness, since labor unions are banned and most employment syndicates are well politicized under the NDP's rule. [...]
[...] His party attracts a huge amount of capital in form of campaign finance since it's classical liberal ideas have a huge following in the Egyptian elite and wealthy. (Darwish, It is the virtual opposite of the Muslim Brotherhood that lacks funds due to the decreased affluence of its base but does not lack numbers in its support. The Judiciary Another force that has been fundamental in providing a movement for democratic change is the Judicial Branch of the country. The judiciary has been struggling for greater independence slowly yet steadily for quiet a while in Egypt. [...]
[...] Policy For Promoting Democracy In Egypt." Voices from the Middle East on Democratization and Reform 7(May 2006) Mahmood, Saba. "Secularism, Hermenuetics, and Empire: The Politics of Islamic Reformation." Public Culture 18:2(2006) Leiken, Brooke, Robert S., Steven. "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood." Foreign Affairs 86(2007): 107-121. Williams, Daniel Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood May be Model for Islam's Political Adaptation. (Feb 3 2006). Washington Post, p. A14. Elsea, Jennifer Nina Serafino, CRS report for congress, Private security contractors in the Middle East: Background, legal status and other [...]
[...] The west needs to concentrate on specifics regarding the democratic reform in Egypt, including elections monitored by the International press, U.N inspections to monitor human right's abuses and parliamentary quotas for minorities and marginalized groups. The U.S no longer has to concern itself with Egypt being a terrorist or anti-Israel threat, rather than a politically unstable threat. Even the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt has subscribed to a non- violent, Da'wah based ideology, and hence political reformation should be the frontline of bilateral relations between the U.S and Egypt. [...]
[...] Furthermore, this paper will also examine some of the forces of political change mentioned above, the steps taken by the government to quell these forces and the outcome of such suppression; it will try to explain these forces in context of the region and politics surrounding Egypt. Finally the paper will also provide possible solutions for the political degeneration in Egypt, through complex, innovative solutions provided by a multitude of political scientists and the steps to reinforce them in Egyptian society. [...]
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