Canada is the second multicultural country in the world after Australia. According to Statistics Canada (2001), 18.4% of the total population in Canada was born outside the country (Caidi, N., & Allard, D. 2005). Many cultures are therefore in contact under the roof of the Canadian nationality. Canada also differs from many other countries in that multiculturalism is part of the national constitution. Indeed, with the creation of a Race Relation Unit in the federal directorate in 1981 then with the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in 1988, Canada showed its commitment to multiculturalism. The question of integration of new comers is very important since multiculturalism is fundamentally about the acknowledgment by the cultural majority of the equal worth of minority cultures (Richard Alba).
[...] According to the study, the largest group of people has the integration profile. That is to say that they have a high involvement in both ethnic and national culture. They speak both languages and have friends in both communities. The second larger group is the ethnic profile, which is distinct by a separation attitude as well as a low national identity. Some people can also have a diffuse profile which means that they neither have a strong ethnic identity nor a strong national one. [...]
[...] Using minority, and most of the time, visible minority as scapegoat has been used very often in the past as the Japanese Canadian during world war two for instance. Likewise, wealth inequality can lead to the scapegoating of some minority or simply to its reject. It is also a way to maintain a global inequality between different ethnicities. Therefore, by proposing a lot more low-paid jobs to Haitians, Québécois maintain a certain hierarchy. (Montreuil, A., & Bourhis, R. Y. (2004) This tendency to reject immigrants seems to have been learned from a very complex socialization. [...]
[...] Assimilation seems therefore to depend on the ability of new comers as well as the integration capacity of the hosts. Different assimilation's factors can thus take place. Indeed, cultural tradition, marriage, social activity, friends or language are very important criteria in the assimilation of immigrants (Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. 2006). The more they are involved in such activities or institution; the more likely they are to be well integrated in the new society. [...]
[...] To conclude, we have to realize the importance of both the immigrant community identity and the host community member's behaviour. Moreover, it appears that the attitude toward immigrants is socially constructed. It relies on a lot of different agents of socialization as television, school or family as well as on a psychological ability to accept difference. These various attitudes toward immigration should be challenge to reach a higher degree of integration and therefore allows Canada to experience a peaceful multiculturalism. [...]
[...] This type of behaviour allow them to find people with who they can share common values and keep their heritage but can also be seen are a barrier that keeps them to be totally part of the society in which they live. A lot of immigrants are proud of their origins or afraid to loose them and therefore tend to stick strongly to they ethnic identity. For instance, the Muslim community and notably Muslim women try to some extent to claim their ethnic identity by wearing the veil. [...]
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