Wine has become an international business, and the difference in wine preferences based on consumer's gender and how these differences vary from country to country are important issues that should be considered in wine product development. We examined consumer's preference for the type of wine and wine packaging, consumer's information search behavior, and consumer's coping mechanism among wine consumers in the USA, Australia, and New Zealand. A t-test was conducted to distinguish the gender difference among wine consumers in those countries, and the results showed that the pattern of gender preferences was fairly consistent from country to countrywhich indicated that gender was a salient basis for segmenting the wine market. The results also implied that in order to better serve customers; retailers should pay close attention to wine packaging and provide enough product information, knowledgeable staff, and point-of-sale advertising since these could help consumers adopt a new wine product.
[...] S.; Global Strategy: In a World of Nations?, Sloan Management Review, Vol pp 70- Zeithaml, V.A.; Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence, Journal of Marketing, Vol pp Appendix Table 1 Key Demographics AUS SAMPLE SIZE GENDER Male Female INCOME* (local currency) < $9999 10K-24,999 25K-49,999 50K-99,999 100K or more REGULAR CONSUMPTION NZ US Table Wine Survey Questions (US version) 1. All else being equal, I prefer to buy wines in the following category: a. [...]
[...] Based on the preceding discussion of wine buying behavior, we developed a set of research questions to ascertain the consistency of gender differences in the wine purchasing situation. Do women's preferences differ from those of men in a similar fashion in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand? Based on the work of Goldsmith et al (1997), we hypothesize that gender preferences will NOT remain consistent across nationalities. Specifically, the difference between the means of male wine consumers and female wine consumers will not remain consistent across nationalities in the following categories: Type of wine Packaging Information search behaviors Coping mechanisms in the absence of information Price 3. [...]
[...] When asked about preferences based on the size of the winery, US men showed a stronger preference for small wineries, whereas Australia women seem to prefer small wineries when compared to Australia men (see the t-test results below). There was no significant difference regarding winery size between New Zealand men and women. US Australia: mmen= sd= 1.28 ; mwomen= sd= 1.34 ; t(1372)= p<.01 mmen= sd= 1.30 ; mwomen= sd= 1.31 ; t(1182)=- p<.01 On the other hand, US and New Zealand women show a stronger preference for wines from national wineries than men in their country, as can be seen below: US: mmen= sd= 1.30 ; mwomen= sd= 1.31 ; t(1372)=- p<.05 New Zealand: mmen= sd= 1.08 ; mwomen= sd= 1.06 ; p<.05 US women also exhibited a statistically stronger preference for international wineries than US men. [...]
[...] Gender was selected as a segmenting variable in this international study because it has been the subject of several recent articles and because several wineries are now selling wines directed toward a female market. Many wineries are starting to develop products that appeal primarily to women, such as lighter, low-alcohol wines. Tracey Mason of Beringer Blass Wine Estates notes, wines are becoming so alcoholic, it is difficult to drink a glass of wine during the week, especially with women's busy lives and having kids”. [...]
[...] There are times when it is embarrassing to buy a wine that isn't appropriate for the occasion There are times when an improper buy of wine could bring me grief There are times when I feel bad because I purchased the wrong wine for the occasion When I'm unsure about making a wine selection, a. Look at the bottle label b. Read the store shelf tags c. Look for newspaper or magazine reviews/recommendations d. Read books on wine e. Ask friends or family f. [...]
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