Universal questioning of the roles of sex and gender began centuries ago. Every culture has their expectations and customs. Even in the present-day united states, where freethinking is a familiar attitude, women find themselves in traditional or likely roles.
Within the field of women's studies, past and present, a popular topic has been the portrayals and roles of women in mass media . Amongst many discussions is the question of the reliability and accuracy. True observers and researchers are cautious about accepting this information and are quick to question it. Foremost, who gathered this information? What was the process of translating it into mass media? Are these portrayals true of all women? How does this information affect the viewer? How should these portrayals affect the viewer?
[...] Psychology of addictive behaviors. 16: 68-71. Morry, M. A., Staska, S.L. (2001). Magazine exposure: internalization, self- objectification, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in male and female university students. Canadian journal of behavioural science, Canadian Psychological Association. 33: 269-279. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M.R., & Greenwald, A.G. (2002). Math = male, me = female, therefore math me. Journal of personality and social psychology. 83: 44-59. Reid, P. T. (2002). Multicultural psychology: Bringing together gender and ethnicity. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology. [...]
[...] N., & Maramba, G.G. (2001). In search of cultural diversity: recent literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology. 12-26. Hendy, H. M., & Nagle, T.R. (2002). A critical examination of gender differences in nutritional risk for rural adults with disability. Rehabilitation psychology. 47: 219-229. Iwamasa, G. Y. (2002). Book review: relationships among Asian American women. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology. 60-62. Ludman, E. J., Cury, S. J., Grothause, L.C., Graham, E., Stout, J., & Lozano, P. [...]
[...] If one must gather from this article what questions that minority women are asking about their identity, then one can argue that these women have noticed patterns, either short-term or long-term, in the past or presence, and the women are curious. They are curious about the origins of some patterns and anxious to change other cycles. Of course, these reasons are not comprehensive. Yet, the development of a comprehensive list seems a daunting task when considering the second hand sources that are often used. [...]
[...] However, the present study suggests that to be successful, cultural diversity must first appear and become recognized because cultural diversity is virtually invisible in prestigious journals.” one can apply this same proposal explicitly to the psychology of minority women. Rarely does the discussion of identity factors for minority women appear in mainstream and more prestigious journals. Moreover, in other medias (including periodicals), when these issues are discussed, the discourse is often short or second-hand knowledge. Could the lack of true representation also lead to questions for these women? [...]
[...] Feeling fruggal: socioeconomic status, acculturation, and cultural health beliefs among women of Mexican descent. Cultural diversity and ethnic minority psychology. 197-206. Brown, C., Abe-Kim, J.S., Barrio, C. (2003). Depression in ethnically diverse women: Implications for treatment in primary care settings. Professional psychology: research and practice. 34: 10-19. Cary, L. (1991). Black ice. New York, Vintage Books. Emerson, R. A. (2002). African-American teenage girls and the construction of Black womanhood in mass media and popular culture. African American research perspectives. Ann Arbor, Michigan, Institute for Social Research. [...]
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