The complicated nature of the current education system has its rules in school history.
Until the end of the XIXth century, most children went to school intended church schools or private school established by rich benefactors. But such schools were largely confined to the sons of rich aristocratic and influential. On the whole, education remained the privilege of children with families wealthy enough to pay the fees and didn't need the wages of the children to survive. The majority of children received no adequate education. State involvements in education was late and the first attempt to establish a national system of state-funded elementary school came only in 1870 for England and Wales in 1872 to Scotland and only in 1923 to Northern Island.
The 1870 Elementary Education Act (Forster Act) created school boards (conseils d'éducation) in England and Wales which provided schools in the area. States Elementary schools now supply non-denominational (non professional) training and existing religious voluntary schools served denominational needs. The schools remained fee paying. In 1880, primary education became free and compulsory up to the age of 10. (12 in 1899). In 1902, the Balfour Act made local governments responsible for state education by creating Local Education Authorities (LEA).The act also gave funding to voluntary schools. Adequate secondary education remained largely the field of the independent sector. State secondary school education in the early XXth was only marginally extended to children whose parents couldn't afford school fees. Scholarships for clever poor children and some schools were created but this state help didn't greatly expand secondary education. In 1920, only 9. 2% of 13 years old children in England and Wales entered secondary schools on a non-fee-paying basis. The school system in the early XXth century was inadequate for the demands of the society. Working class and lower middle-class children lacked extensive education. Until 1944, successive governments avoided any further significant involvement.
[...] In his introduction to the 1997 Labor manifesto, Blair rejected the ancient Labor party which was strongly identified with the working class. According to him, it wasn't adapted to the modern world and his divisions were old fashioned. The Labor leader wanted to widen his political appeal and to attract all voters. Same attempts were made by the Conservative party relying on the concept of meritocraticy which says if you work hard you can succeed. This is a typical conservative argument used to go beyond social classes. [...]
[...] Many other traditional heavy industries in the UK such as ship-building (construction navale) have seen their fortunes decline. The key strength of the sector lies on aerospace, high technology and pharmaceutical industry. _The service sector is the dominant sector of the UK economy. It is seen as the engine of growth (moteur de croissance) for the national economy accounting for 66% of the GDP of people in employment work in services. II/ Working conditions The current British work force is flexible and mobile. [...]
[...] Lastly, a useful education of the strength of Trade Union is the number of working days lost through stoppages in one-year in UK was during the general strike in 1926 with over one-hundred and sixty M working days lost. Further period of high dispute occurred in Since 1991, the number has only risen above 1 M twice in 1986 and 2002. In 2003, they were half a 1M working days lost through Labor disputes (wages disputes were the cause of 84% of the working days lost in 2003) The Trade Union Congress It is the organization representing an overwhelming majority of the UK's Trade Unions. [...]
[...] In 2003, a round half of the UK population was married. In 1950, there were 400,000 marriages, 1972: 480,000, 2003: 306,000. But this was the second successive annual rise. - Another growing tendency is the increase of singleness; one-person households represented 18% of all households in 1971, in 2004: 29%. So there has been an increasing tendency for people to live on their own at younger ages. The largest increases were among people aged 25 to 44. The proportions of men and women who lived alone doubled between 1986 and 2003. [...]
[...] Work situation refers to firstly location in system of authority & control at work although; the degree of autonomy at work is secondary aspect. It also relies on employment status whether an employer, self-employed or employee. Whether a supervisor and a number of employees at the work place. Moreover a new method is also used in order to classify households with family members having different work position. Under the old system, the chosen person which is the reference person was defined as the head of household. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee