Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, political scientists and researchers in international relations have abandoned the bipolar pattern between the USSR and the United States. Following the implosion of the Soviet bloc in 1991, issues concerning the East-West conflict have disappeared, giving way to new questions about the North-South conflict, the vast majority here being of African and Middle East descent, whose religion is Islam.
[...] Indeed, the caliph is the representative of God on Earth, "instead of the prophet." According to the theory of Al Mawardi (XI century), its functions only result from religious precepts, "protect the Islam and its community (the Umma), lead prayer, fasting, pilgrimage [ . ] and ensure respect for justice and security of the ummah " The caliph thus has no theological power to waive the application of Sharia (Divine Law), since no legislative or human source of law is permitted. [...]
[...] ] opposed to democracy for the simple reason that is based on the principle of sacred authority over men [ . ] Islam is against democracy, whereas the Qur'an is the only source of law.' Based on these findings, several factors may be invoked as "the obscurantism of the Muslim countries," as causes of rejection of democracy. Indeed, these countries were not affected by the "third wave of democratization" in the words of Samuel Huntington, following the collapse of the bipolar world. [...]
[...] L Islam and democracy would not be totally incompatible, because there is an easing of political practices within both, because of the internal nature of international influence. II - The compatibility between Islam and democracy allows an original political structure We hear of more and more Muslim countries in a process of politicization of the sacred, on behalf of which democracy is understood as" the fusion of secular sovereignty and absolute Truth.' So an original formation of the state emerges in the Islamic world, based on a more political legitimacy that of "necessity" in addition to the religious legitimacy and a movement of political flexibility inaugurating a process of irreversible democratization A. [...]
[...] We will consider initially the weight of Islam in the process of legitimation of political authority and democratization to determine whether or not an "Arab exceptionalism." A second part relativism is the tutelage of religion over politics (II). Our study will therefore focus on a possible detachment of politics over religion which would promote the process of democratization of the Arab-Muslim I - The dominant role of Islam in the construction of the Muslim State A political power is legitimate only if it is valid, that is to say, authorized, recognized by the administrative law. [...]
[...] Efforts have been made for a more flexible interpretation of the Koran to addressing real problems facing the city: the ijtihad (the Divine Law is extended to the treatment of new cases) and ijma (the new rules provided are legitimate).This could be considered a breach of religious legitimacy, but this was supplemented by a new principle: the need (dharuriyya)which gives a concrete political role and makes the Prince more autonomous. For the Prince to protect the city from chaos, the Prince must be free to act to make this protection and should not be locked up in a religious straitjacket, preventing any maneuver. [...]
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