Pentagrams, or five-pointed stars, are ancient symbols and have been found on broken fragments of pottery in Palestine from around 4000 BCE and in Sumerian excavations from around 2700 BCE. A vase, spindle whorl, and clay tablet with the pentagram dated around 4500?3100 BCE have been found in Mesopotamia. A flint scraper with a pentagram of a similar date was found in the Israeli Negev Desert. We have no clear information on what these symbols stood for in ancient times. Some scholars argue that the Sumerian symbol stood for the four corners of the Earth plus the vault of Heaven.
The pentagram symbol reappeared again around 400 BCE as the symbol for the Pythagorean school of mysticism in Greece. It represented the human figure in that school.
[...] Symbols in Context Symbols often persist through changes in cultures, sometimes taking on new meanings in new situations. It is sometimes difficult to tell when the meaning of a symbol has changed. For example, many Christian churches or cathedrals contain what were originally pagan symbols. Commentators debate whether the symbols were used because they had been given new meanings or if the old symbols show that some old beliefs persisted. The cathedral at Chartres is a good example of the use of what many call pagan symbols. [...]
[...] In Freemasonry the pentagram is one of several symbols for Deity, and has been for centuries. B. The Eight-Pointed Star The number eight was also associated with the planet Venus. This was because Venus remains as the Morning or Evening Star for eight lunar cycles and both the Morning and Evening Stars return to a given point in the sky every eight years. As a result, both the eight-pointed star and the eight- petaled flower were frequently used to symbolize the planet and various Goddesses connected to the planet, including the Goddesses Venus and Aphrodite, as the Evening Star. [...]
[...] Though the pentagram, or five-pointed star was once related to Athena and later associated with Satanism, the US military's use of these stars does not indicate either that they worship Athena or are dedicated to Satanism. Symbols change and must be understood in the contexts of the places and times in which they are used. Bibliography Bruce-Mitford, Miranda. Illustrated Book of Signs & Symbols. New York: DK Pub., Inc Cowen, Painton. Rose Windows. San Francisco: Chronicle Books Crockett, James Underwood. Roses. New York: Time-Life books Liungman, Carl G. Dictionary of Symbols. New York: W.W. Norton & Co Livio, Mario. The Golden Ratio: [...]
[...] These builders used some symbolism that had been used by pagans in earlier times, but since these symbols were not usually hidden, it is unlikely they were intended to have a non-Christian in meaning. There is no good reason to believe that these symbols were meant to be heretical from a Christian point of view; it is much more likely the builders meant to absorb the symbols into Christianity. The builders quite openly professed that they saw all of Creation under the power of the Logos and considered all symbolism theirs to use as they wished. [...]
[...] The fire triangle represents the male energy of Shiva, and the water triangle represents the female energy of Shakti, just as the water triangle represented the pubic triangle throughout the Middle East. E. The Rose In Christian Europe the rose was most often associated with Mary the mother of Jesus, who was called the Virgin. This association is reflected in European art like the painting, The Virgin of the Rose Bower. Before the time of Christianity many flowers were associated with various Goddesses in Europe. [...]
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