All humans are created equal and have the ability of agency according to Locke. The experimentalist perspective also advocates an extensive degree of personal agency and responsibility to sustain equality throughout life (Steven's, 1996a, p.195-201). However, the social constructionists believe in a more deterministic and constraining world. Psychologists such as Mead and Vygotsky argue that external influences along with integration of the individual plays a major part in constructing 'social norms', social roles and society itself (Wetherell and Maybin, 1996, p.248-253). Social norms are shared ways of perceiving the world and guide our actions within a particular culture (Radley, 1996, p.27). Shared feelings, personal relationships, and social interaction are central influences in the construction of social norms (Miell and Dallos 1996, p.3).
[...] 1996) and studies of professional relationships will be utilized within the essay. Bales suggested that different roles, hierarchical positions, shared beliefs and common assumptions are important aspects to establish power relations within relationships (Radley 1996, p.27-32). Bales also believed that positive or negative asking and giving of information are fundamental to establish power within relationships through communication (Banister 1996, p.20). From my observations of TV01 clearly the doctor is verbally dominant in the exchange with the patient (Appendix which supports Bales's notion that commands of communication can be associated with power relations. [...]
[...] Now that the unequally of power has been discussed I will move on to examine this in the context of professional relationships. Fundamental to the structure of professional relationships is that the professional has all the resources and that the recipient cannot reciprocate. Also the professional is perceived as the 'expert' within the relationship and can therefore normalize meanings (Miell and Croghan 1996, p.298). This is supported by my observations in terms of verbal and non- verbal dominance by the doctor. [...]
[...] Finally it must be noted that Social psychology is influenced by the public attitudes, resources and expectations but also influences it in turn and impacts on society's beliefs. Thus, researchers in social psychology should be aware of the ethical and moral considerations of their research (Stevens 1996c, p.18-19). Social psychology itself could be criticized for validating power differentials in society in the interest of maintaining the social order and possibly the powerful. However, there does appear to be a paradox, while social psychology could reinforce differentials it is also argued to provide the 'tools' to resist perceptions of a 'natural' and 'normal' social world. [...]
[...] and Croghan, R.(1996) 'Examining the wider context of social relationships' in Miell, D. and Dallos, R. Social interactions and personal relationships, London, Sage/The Open University. Murphy, J. (1996) 'Using health and illness to understand social psychological problems and perspective' in D317 Trigger unit, Social Psychology: Personal lives and social worlds, The Open University. Murphy, J. (1996) 'Using health and illness to understand social psychological problems and perspectives in D317 Trigger unit: Personal lives and social worlds, The Open University. Radley, A. [...]
[...] However, even the powerful are constrained by mutualism with the wider social implications, also Focualt argues that power constraints can be contested and ideological beliefs favor the powerful rather than being constructed by them. So it appears that while Locke might be right to suggest we are all born equal, through the interaction of the individual and social influence personal agency and equality may not be as easily achievable as proposed by the experimentalist. However, as Giddens suggests the boundaries between the social and the individual are fluid and ever changing. [...]
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