Although the term addiction is still widely used current theorists and scholars are tending to use the term dependence in modern research and studies. People can become dependent not only on external substances that are ingested but also to risky behaviors such as gambling, extreme sports etc. In this respect anything that induces a pleasurable physiological change has the potential to lead to dependence or addiction. Brain cells have a central core covered by a sheath; at one end of the cell are roots at the other end fronds. A charge is passed through the fronds to the fronds of another brain cell and neurotransmitters are released, these neurotransmitters are responsible for feelings of euphoria and heightened pleasure. Some substances mimic neurotransmitters or may cause receptors to cut out; the use of some substances (such as alcohol or opiates) may cause the brain to stop producing neurotransmitters leading to dependence.Orford and Heather (2003) have identified the puzzling aspect of addiction, the fact that although the addict wants to give up the addiction they often find themselves returning to the substance or action that they are dependent on.
[...] The cost–effectiveness of treatment for alcoholism: A second approximation. J Stud Alcohol 57:229– Flory, L. (2001) Understanding borderline personality disorder, London: MIND. Goodman, A. (2005) Addiction definition and implications. (online) available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_ui ds=2285834&dopt=Citation Accessed on Gupta1, Derevensky J. (1997) Familial and Social Influences on Juvenile Gambling Behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, Volume 13, (Number 3). pp 179-192. September Hall,W. Carter, L. (2004) Clinical evidence symposium on drugs. Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. [...]
[...] (Guptal and Deverensky, 1997) It is common with people, who have a reliance on a substance or an action to have other psychiatric diagnosis, all theories should take into account co-morbidity i.e. a number of reasons for behavior, there is a high incidence of people who are alcohol dependant suffering from mental illness. There is often doubt as to what came first, the mental illness or the dependant behavior for instance it is widely debated by scholars and psychiatrists whether drug use is predetermining for schizophrenia or whether schizophrenia leads to drug use. (Ogden, 2004) The biological approach to addiction defines the individual as having a biological predisposition to substance dependency. [...]
[...] Dependency may be a learned behavior that is passed down through the generations; the main predictor for smoking amongst children is having a parent who smokes: In addition parents' attitudes to smoking also influence their offspring's' behavior , for example if the child perceives the parent to be strongly against smoking he/she is seven time more likely not to smoke. (Ogden p.112) Understanding the theoretical framework of addiction will help practitioners analyze how and why people become addicted to certain behaviors or substances. [...]
[...] (1999) The Role of Stress in Alcohol Use, Alcoholism Treatment, and Relapse. (online) Available from: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh23-4/263-271.pdf Accessed Brewer, D.D. Catalano, R.F. Haggerty, K. Gainey, R.R. Fleming, C.B. (1998) Ingenta Connect. Research Report, a meta-analysis of predictors of continued drug use during and after treatment for opiate addiction. (online) Available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/serarch/expand?pub=infobike://carfax/cadd/1998 /000 Accessed on Cadoret RJ, Yates WR, Troughton Woodworth Stewart MA. (1995) Adoption study demonstrating two genetic pathways to drug abuse. Arch Gen Psychiatry. Volume 52( Nuber pp 42-52. [...]
[...] These studies were done on people that had been put up for adoption and the biological parents had an alcohol dependency. The results showed that there was a three to four fold increase in this group of developing a dependency on alcohol over the rest of the population. (Cadoret et al 1995) Although these studies suggest that there is a genetic predisposition to dependency Cadoret et al do not indicate whether or not there is a heightened risk factor for dependency due to other factors that are related to their adoption. [...]
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