The industrial relations characterize the employee-employers relation in a company. In the United States, the term industrial relation really appeared with the creation of the Commission on Industrial relations in 1912 after two leaders of the Structural Ironworkers Union killed twenty persons in the dynamite bombing of the L.A Times in 1910. Nevertheless, the issue of industrial relations in the US has always been part of the story of the country, with the consequences it has on the welfare of workers as well as employers that is to say on the whole nation. The United States have experienced one of the bloodiest employment relations, with a strong tradition of violent labour movements and harsh repression until the mid 1950, but then succeeded in changing the pattern of industrial relations to turn to more dialogue and cooperation.
1 The origins of the employer-employee conflicts (1770-1800)
At the time of the 1776 revolution, most American workers were self-employed: they were farmers, artisan or labourers. The tiny part which worked for a boss did so as were immigrants who wanted to learn a trade or just raise money for a time. Nevertheless, in 1776 was organized the first strike against a boss America ever recorded, with the walk of the journeyman tailors in New York city who complained about reduction pays. They had no funds but set up their own cooperative the house of call. The same year was published the Tomas Paine's pamphlet common sense which aimed at uniting the working force to struggle for equity. Workers, who felt dominated by the local landed and merchant-capitalist in an elitist society, started fighting to better their working conditions.
[...] UMMA, strike action is considered to be not a conspiracy to restrain trade according to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and in 1926, the Railway Labour Act prohibited employers from discriminating against workers involved in a union .Boards and commissions are also created to tackle labour problems. First, in 1903, The Department of Commerce and Labour is formed followed in 1918 by the National War Labour Board founded by President Wilson. The department of labour, then separated from the Department of Commerce has a Woman in Industry division established as well. [...]
[...] In 1913, the US Department of Labour is established and Secretary of Labour is empowered to "act as a mediator and to appoint commissioners of conciliation in labour disputes.” In 1917, the president decided the settlement of a mediation commission headed by the Secretary of Labour, to solve wartime labour. The different strikes and revendications led as well to several changes in the labour law. Wage-earners managed to get part of their demands satisfied. First, in 1908, In Muller v. [...]
[...] In 1806 for example, Philadelphia journeymen shoemakers were arrested by their boss for having unionized and strike The women movement started to extend from 1824 when they joined male weavers protesting wage reduction and extension of the workday in Rhode Island and then in 825 when The United Tailoresses of New York stroke fffor wage increase. In 1827 the first union gathering different trades was formed in Philadelphia: The Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations. Soon, similar local unions were created. [...]
[...] The NWLB refused to let strikes taken place and damage social and economical relations in the country and granted maintenance of membership against a no strikes commitment. The pressure of this institution, the fear of anti-labour legislation led to the dismissal of strikes leaders. A contractual mode of dispute resolution soon developed as well as internal union control. The labour rights turned to legacy through the law of collective bargaining which spread. Collective agreements set arbitration clauses and no strikes clauses. [...]
[...] The United States of America experimented a patent change of their economy over the first part of the 19th century leading the country from a rural and farming society to an increasingly factory manufacture engaged one. America began to introduce new ways of organizing work for one goal: more productivity. Smaller structures were no longer sufficient to satisfy this goal. Thus, production was concentrated and a large capital-intensive organisation of work was set. This came along with technological inventions such as steam power and powered machinery as well as the development of all-metal machine tools. [...]
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