The Effects of War, Peace, Foreign Aid
The Sudan is a vast area extending from the Red Sea at the Horn of Africa in the East to the Sahel regions in the North and the Equatorial rainforest at its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo in the West. It used to be one country, the Republic of Sudan, but the South split away from the North in 2010 through a referendum to form the Republic of South Sudan, formally constituted on 9 July 2011 (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Santschi, 2012). The conflict in the Sudan lasted from 1955 to 2005 when the Government of Sudan signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) with the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Sanstchi, 2012).
More than 2 million people died in the conflict and over twice that number were displaced and their livelihoods disrupted, and while some died as a result of violence during the conflict, 97% of the deaths were caused by disease and malnutrition (Maxwell, Gelsdorf and Santschi, 2012). Currently, international aid assistance accounts for approximately 3% of Sudan's economy and more than 15 million people directly depend on foreign aid programs according to a United Nations Environmental Programme report (UNEP, n.d.).
[...] (2012). Livelihoods, Basic Services, and Social Protection in South Sudan. London: Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium. THE EFFECTS OF WAR AND PEACE ON FOREIGN AID UNEP (n.d.). International Aid and the Environment. [...]
[...] Secondly, foreign aid fuels the war economy by providing the mean of sustenance to drivers, managers, translators, and hotel owners through direct and indirect employment, and also sustains the war effort for warring sides who steal relief items, communication equipment, vehicles etc from aid convoys in order to sell at a profit (Lassiter, 2007). When aid becomes such a means of sustenance, all sides in the conflict develop a stakeholder mentality and eschew a cessation of hostilities. In the Sudan, this was seen when relief supplies were stolen and diverted; foreign aid became an important source of livelihood and wherewithal for the SPLA in the war effort (Lassiter, 2007). [...]
[...] Communities, individuals, or nations exhibiting negative dependency behavior adopt a helpless attitude in relation to the provision of aid such that they are unable to engage in productive activities in future because of lack of proper incentives to work or be productive (Barrett, 2006). Where foreign aid has been as prolonged in a country's history as in the Sudan's, the disincentives to be productive are deeply entrenched in the collective psyche. Foreign aid, therefore, has increased poverty levels rather than decreased them, and has also deepened hostilities and prolonged the conflict THE EFFECTS OF WAR AND PEACE ON FOREIGN AID 6 Bibliography ALNAP (2014). Where to Now? Agency Expulsions in Sudan: Consequences and Next Step. Retrieved from http://www.odi.org.uk/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publicationsopinion-files/4190.pdf Barrett, C.B. (2006). [...]
[...] The war had a devastating effect on livelihoods especially agriculture and resulted in mass food deficits. To plug the gap and reduce the toll of hunger, humanitarian organizations stepped in with relief food. Large scale humanitarian aid started flowing into Sudan in the 1980s, and in Operation Lifeline Sudan was initiated by two United Nations agencies, UNICEF and the World Food Programme in conjunction with 35 other aid organizations (UNEP, n.d.). Since that time, THE EFFECTS OF WAR AND PEACE ON FOREIGN AID foreign aid to Sudan and South Sudan have been going on incessantly, reaching over 2 million people to date with relief interventions in food items, medicines, shelter, clothing, etc. [...]
[...] Food Aid's Intended and Unintended Consequences. Retrieved from http://dyson.cornell.edu/faculty_sites/cbb2/Papers/MixedEffectsv2Mar2006.pdf Blanchard, L.P. (2014). Crisis in South Sudan. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R43344.pdf Lassiter, R.L.S. (2007). How Aid Negatively Impacts Conflict: The Moral and Practical Dilemmas Faced by Humanitarian Organizations. Retrieved from http://web.wm.edu/so/monitor/issues/13-1/5-lassiter.pdf Maxwell, D., Gelsdorf, K. and Santschi, M. [...]
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