Discharge of domestic sewage, Coral Reefs, Southern Corniche in Jeddah, sewage, marine environment, coasts, Saudi Arabia
Despite the important role that coral reefs play in the ecosystem, various human activities have led to their destruction over the years. This is mostly due to the solid and dissolved wastes released into the sea with insufficient treatment. In Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, the situation is not far from this. One may be left, therefore, wondering if the discharge of domestic sewage in Jeddah is leading to erosion of coral reefs.
[...] The next step will involve measuring the temperature of every water sample before the beginning of the experiment. The temperature of ach water sample will, however, be measured and recorded at the source. This will be followed by placing the three water samples in a room, whose tempearture, light and air supply are constant. In order to determine the constant temperatures of the experiment room, the daily temperatures of that particular room will be measured and recorded at intervals of two hours for a period of three days. [...]
[...] Marine Ecology Progress Series 219-226. Spalding, M. D., Green, E. P., & Ravilious, C. (2001). World atlas of coral reefs. Berkeley, Calif. [u.a.: Univ. of California Press. Walker, J. B. S. C. [...]
[...] Research question Is the discharge of domestic sewage due to increased population in Southern Corniche in Jeddah leading to the erosion of coral reefs? Imminent threats to the coral reefs A coral reef can be described as a community of living organisms. It comprises of plants, different types of fish and other sea creatures. It is among the most diverse eco-system in the world. Coral reefs have been present for millions of years growing at a very slow rate; all the more reason why the existing corals should be protected. [...]
[...] Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved Cu, Ni and Zn in the coastal waters of Jeddah, eastern Red Sea. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 7-8. A. M. Gheith, A. S. Basaham. (2012). Mineralogical and Chemical Significances of Modern Marine Sabkha, Developed in the Southern Corniche Beach of Jeddah, Red Sea Coast. Science and Engineering Publishing Company. Archambault, P., K. Banwell and A.J. Underwood, (2001). [...]
[...] Earth Sci. J., 10: 59- 71. Basaham, A. S., Rifaat, A. E., El-Mamoney, M. H., & El, S. M. A. (2009). Re- evaluation of the impact of sewage disposal on coastal sediments of the southern Corniche, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of King Abdulaziz University, Marine Science 109-126. El-Rayis, O.A.,(1990). Distribution of some heavy metals in sediments, water and different trophic levels from Jeddah coast, red sea. [...]
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