Osteomyelitis, microbial infection, polymicrobial infections, mycobacteria, risk factors, etiological factors, clinical manifestations
Osteomyelitis is a microbial infection that infects the bone and associated with fungi, bacteria, and rarely mycobacteria. The microbial infection causes a destructive inflammatory process. Osteomyelitis can happen in any bone in the body. The infection starts with an acute infection, which if left untreated can progress to become a chronic disease. Factors like the causative agent, the extent of and chronicity of infection affect the clinical manifestations, prognosis, and therapy of the disease (Kumar et al., 2013).
[...] D., Long, B. W., & Smith, B. J. (2013). Merrill's atlas of radiographic positioning and procedures (Vol. 3). Elsevier Health Sciences. Kumar, K. A., Karthikeyan, C., Kannan, R. M., Kannan, V., & Krishnamurthy, C. S. (2013). Foreign body induced calcaneal osteomyelitis–A rare complication of barefoot walking. The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review, 122-128. Peltola, H., & Pääkkönen, M. [...]
[...] Osteomyelitis is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus in all forms of osteomyelitis. S. aureus causes 60-90% of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis cases in Children. The high level is mainly because of the skeletal anatomy of a child that allows entrapment of organisms. However, S. aureus is mainly seen in adults in around 75% of cases (Peltola & Pääkkönen, 2014). Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in patients having prosthetic joint infections. Streptococcal species ate common in all osteomyelitis categories. For the neonatal period, infections are mainly due to group B streptococci. [...]
[...] In the medical history examination, the clinician can ask questions about medication usage, various body infections, family medical history and past medical history (van Asten et al., 2016). The physical assessment can look at areas of swelling, redness, tenderness, open sores and painful range of motion. After this, the clinician can order tests to assist diagnose osteomyelitis. Various test can be ordered, which include blood cultures (Kumar et al., 2013). However, none of the above tests is specific for the diagnosis of Osteomyelitis but can be suggest the presence of a body infection. Different Imaging studies can be ordered for the involved bones. [...]
[...] Treatment aims to stop the infection in its initial stages and preserve many functions as possible. Antibiotics assist in bringing the contagion under control and help avoid surgery. The infected region can also be immobilized using a brace to speed treatment and reduce pain. Surgery could be recommended as a treatment method. If there exists a region of bone abscess (localized bacteria), it may be required to open it, washed, and drain (Frank, Long & Smith, 2013). Further, any region that has damaged tissues or bone, may require to be removed. [...]
[...] The analysis in this paper will cover the risk factors, etiological factors, clinical manifestations and specific implications of Osteomyelitis for the physical therapist. Overview Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is an infection instigated by bacteria from the bloodstream and occurs mainly in kids under 17 years of age. The condition primarily affects long bones in children and lumbar and thoracic vertebrae in adults. Contiguous osteomyelitis may result from direct bone bacterial inoculation from an extension of a neighboring soft tissue infection or an exogenous source (surgery, trauma) (Peltola & Pääkkönen, 2014). [...]
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