Climate change is now widely recognised as a long term threat. It is thought that the climate is being changed by the increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, arising from human activities.
Useful reductions in CO2 emissions can be achieved by fuel switching and improving energy efficiency. This presentation will cover both the experience
from this project as well as the results found in the
Statoil SACS program (Saline Aquifer CO2 storage
programme), a 4,5 million Euro R&D programme
run under the European Union R&D Framework
programme, involving numerous European geological survey institutions and energy companies together with the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.
[...] IntroductionIntroductionSimplified World Energy ModelStructure IntroductionCO2 Increase, 2003-2030 OECD CO2 additions only three quarters of Chinese CO2 rise, but OECDemissions per capita still two times higher in 2030 as shown in the next figure. Introduction CO2 Increase, 2003-2030 Introduction There are a number of potential geological reservoirs that can be used to store captured CO2. These geological reservoirs include depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline aquifers and deep unminable coal seams. Of these reservoirs deep saline aquifers have the most significant potential to store CO2 in terms of their global capacity. [...]
[...] The cost is related to onshore sequestration CO2: a new business In 2003 Statoil started to study the technical feasability to deliver the necessary amount of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery to the Gullfaks field offshore Norway million tonnes pr year for a period of 10 years will have to be injected, giving an extra benefit to the project from the very significant amounts of extra oil produced. CO2: a new business Conclusionsand remaining issues To make deep reductions in emissions, widespread application of other options, such as renewable energy or nuclear power, may be required. [...]
[...] The Utsira reservoir lies between 500 and 1500m deep and occupies an area of km2. The reservoir is overlain by a shale layer, between 50-100m thick, which extends well beyond the area currently occupied by the injected CO2. The SleipnerCO2 injection The shales have very low permeability and hence will provide an effective seal to the injected CO2. As part of the SACS project, seismic surveying has been used to successfully monitor the CO2 in the Utsira formation, an industry first. [...]
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