According to Gould (2006), hepatitis results as an inflammation to the liver. There are a couple of different reasons for hepatitis: idiopathic- fatty liver resulting from a local infection, or from an infection somewhere else in the body, or from chemical or drug toxicity are all different aspect that can cause hepatitis. Hepatitis B results from the agent hepatitis B virus (HBV- DNA double strand virus). The liver cells are damaged by cell mediated immune responses to the virus leading to cell injury from the inflammation and necrosis in the liver (Gould, 2006, p. 458). Its transmission mode is through blood and body fluids. There are no symptoms at first however the patient may feel sick for weeks, may become very ill. Appetite loss, fatigue low fever, muscle and joint aches, nausea and vomiting, jaundice are all side effects that occur with hepatitis B.
The treatment for hepatitis B involves monitoring the liver and body functions with blood tests, plenty of bed rest, lots of fluids and healthy foods, in rare cases the need of a liver transplant, antiviral medications is used. There are estimations that record between 200,000 and 300,000 new cases that occur in the United States each year. In a broader spectrum there are more than 1 million carriers in the country and 4,000 to 5,000 deaths annually from associated cirrhosis and cancer (liver). There are over 50% of those who test HIV positive that are also positive for hepatitis B. And globally there are estimates of over 200 million. This disease is serious and unfortunately 50% of the cases are asymptomatic, facilitating transmission to others (Gould, 2006, p. 461).
[...] He then identified this as hepatitis B, surface antigen or HBsAg. It was during this discovery that he also noted that in the production of the whole virus, the liver also produced cells which were only part of the surface of the virus and these cells could be used to produce a vaccine. After two years of the discovery of hepatitis B, the trials for a vaccine were being proceeded with. Within the trial of the vaccine it was shown to be safe and effective after only a few thousand test cases and the vaccine proved to be 95% effective (hepb.org, 2011). [...]
[...] Hepatitis B has a long incubation period that averages about 2 months. The long incubation periods make HBV more difficult to track sources and contacts for infection. When the antigen HBsAg (produced by infected liver cells in large amounts during the early course of infection) persists in the serum it poses a high risk of continued active infection and damage to the liver leading to a chronic stage of the disease (Gould, 2006, p. 461). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) the age at which a person becomes infected is a factor that HBV will become chronic. [...]
[...] Retrieved on October 7, 2011 from http://www.hepb.org/professionals/prevention_measures.htm The Hepatitis B Foundation was founded by Paul and Janine Witte in 1991 when they discovered there was no organization devoted to finding a cure for hepatitis B. With the support of Dr. Baruch Blumberg (the winner of a Nobel Prize for his discovery of the Hepatitis B virus), they worked to establish the Hepatitis B Foundation. It has now grown into a professional organization with a global reach. Their goal is to improve the lives of those who are affected by hepatitis B by a comprehensive program or research, education and patient advocacy. Mayo Clinic, (2011). Hepatitis B. [...]
[...] Hepatitis B results from the agent hepatitis B virus (HBV- DNA double strand virus). The liver cells are damaged by cell mediated immune responses to the virus leading to cell injury from the inflammation and necrosis in the liver (Gould, 2006, p. 458). Its transmission mode is through blood and body fluids. There are no symptoms at first however the patient may feel sick for weeks, may become very ill. Appetite loss, fatigue low fever, muscle and joint aches, nausea and vomiting, jaundice are all side effects that occur with hepatitis B. [...]
[...] Retrieved on October 22, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626828/pdf/8903148.pdf Michigan Department of Community Health, (2011). Retrieved on October 29, 2011 from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/09HepatitisBTestinginPregnantWomen081 506_233723_7.pdf National Intelligence Council, (2011). Retrieved on October 22, 2011 from http://www.dni.gov/nic/special_globalinfectious.html PubMed, (2005). Risk factors for hepatitis B in an outbreak of hepatitis B and D among injection drug users. Retrieved on October 7, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16049202 Sexual Health Expert Medical Care on Demand, (2011). Hepatitis B. Retrieved on October 22, 2011 from http://www.sexualhealth.com/non-adherence-to- hepatitis-b-drugs-may-cause-signs-of-treatment-resistance_n_419/ World Health Organization, (2011). Hepatitis B control plan. [...]
APA Style referenceFor your bibliography
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee