This literature review examined the effect of music on pain and anxiety in preoperative patients and burn victims as well as older people with osteoarthritis. Studies that explored the effect of music intervention generally allowed subjects to listen to self-selected music during the trial period. On the other hand, studies that examined the effect of music therapy hired music therapists who assisted patients in pain management. Because of the small sample sizes in several studies, the findings are often contradictory. This review demonstrates that the patients who listened to music before surgery report lower levels of state anxiety.
[...] Furthermore, music listening is a safe and cost effective nursing intervention for use with community dwelling elders who experience chronic osteoarthritis pain. In brief, the effectiveness of music therapy has proven to be inefficient and costly to reduce anxiety in children patients preoperatively; however, older people suffering from chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis could benefit from music listening as a way to reduce pain. Conclusion The effectiveness of music intervention and music therapy in reducing the levels of anxiety and pain in patients are controversial. [...]
[...] For example, in the systematic review by Evans (2002) exploring the effectiveness of music intervention for reducing anxiety in hospital patients, the author noted that the small sample size as well as exclusion of non-English language studies may have resulted in the lack of beneficial outcomes of music listening. Further research in music intervention and therapy should consider a larger sample size to advance the understanding its beneficial effect on reducing pain and anxiety. It would also be interested to include non-English language studies and examine the effect of cross cultural strategies in dealing with pain and anxiety. [...]
[...] Ferguson & Voll (2004) examined the effect of music in reducing perceived levels of pain and anxiety motion exercises on burn patients. In this study, eleven subjects with partial-thickness or deeper burns were randomly assigned to either a control group or a music intervention group. Subjects in the experimental group had a choice of 6 cassette tapes that met guidelines for the therapeutic use of music in medial settings. The self-reported visual analog scale was used to measure pain. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure anxiety. [...]
[...] Hence, the engagement in music therapy can promote compliance with procedures, assist with general pain and anxiety management, as well as offer an opportunity for self-expression, and affirm the individuality of the patients by allowing them to choose their own music. The Use of Music Intervention across Age Groups Studies of the effectiveness of interactive music therapy in children and older people exhibited different results according to two studies. Kain, Caldwell-Andrews, Krivutza, Weinberg, Gaal, Wang, & Mayes (2004) studied the effectiveness of interactive music therapy in reducing anxiety in children. [...]
[...] Like other studies, there were no differences observed in systolic blood pressure .17), diastolic blood pressure .11), or heart rate .76). Additionally opoid usage did not decrease in either of the groups. In this study, there was a significant reduction in pain and anxiety as a result of music intervention. Music is an inexpensive intervention with no known side effects. If music were to become a part of the regimen for the postoperative care of cardiac surgery patients, there would be positive effects on anxiety and stress reduction. [...]
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