Problems with depression are by no means limited to those who are clinically diagnosed as being so. Generalised, negative affect is experienced by everyone throughout the course of a lifetime. Usually, non clinical depression is linked to some kind of stressor in the environment which can be clearly identified, for example, the termination of a job. It is only when these depressive episodes go further than certain boundaries of intensity, duration and frequency can the disorder can be labelled clinical depression. Depressive symptoms, e.g. sadness, disturbed sleep and fatigue can also be symptoms of other medical conditions (for example stroke) however, in this situation depression may not require a separate diagnosis. Clinical depression is a very prevalent problem in today's society; 15% of people will have an episode of major depression in their lives and it is said to be the fourth most common cause of disability worldwide (NHS Website 2004).
[...] Lawlor et al also state that they do not think it is possible to define the effectiveness of exercise in treating depression from the available literature although it may alleviate some of the symptoms Until more is known about the effectiveness of exercise on depression standard treatment should continue especially in the more severe cases. More longitudinal designs are needed (for 12 months or more) (Craft and Landers 1998) within the area. In a study by (Martinsen, Medhus, & Sandvik, 1985) subjects who had fitness gains of over 30% had greater reductions in depression than those in the 15-30% bracket. [...]
[...] The effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness: A meta analysis. Journal of sport and exercise psychology 339-357. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author. Dimeo, F., Bauer, M., Varahram, I., Proest, G., & Halter, U. (2001). Benefits from aerobic exercise in patients with major depression: a pilot study. British journal of sports medicine, 35(2) 114-117. Dishman, R.K. [...]
[...] Copyright ebay member karl242424The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review. Journal of psychosomatic research, 37(6) 565-574. Camacho, T. C., Roberts, R. E., Lazarus, N. B., Kaplan, G. A., & Cohen, R. D. (1991). Physical activity and depression: evidence from the Alameda County Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134(2) 220-231. Carlson, D.L. (1991). The effects if exercise on depression: A review and meta-regression analysis (dissertation). Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin. Craft, L.L. (2003). Exercise and clinical depression: examining two psychological mechanisms. [...]
[...] The effect size found here is similar to other meta analytic studies (North, McCullagh and Tran 1990; Carlson 1991; Craft and Landers 1998) The authors of this study have critiqued their findings and state that results that give the standard mean difference can be difficult to understand in clinical terms and what would have been a better measure would be a dichotomous outcome; the likelihood of suffering from depression after the intervention Figure Exercise compared to standard treatments for depression Taken from Lawlor et al (2001) p765 The four studies shown in the above table consisted of standardised mean differences in effect size between exercise and cognitive therapy. [...]
[...] The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression: systematic review and meta- regression analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 322(7289) 763-767. Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69(1) 176-190. Copyright ebay member karl242424 Maciejewski, P. K., Prigerson, H. G., & Mazure, C. M. (2000). Self-efficacy as a mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Differences based on history of prior depression. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee