Dietary advices aimed at reducing disease risk of the entire population can be of major benefit for the nation's health because even a relatively small reduction in risk factors in a large number of moderate-risk people could lead to much greater benefit for the total population than a large reduction in risk for a small number of high-risk people. For example, population-wide dietary changes are especially worthwhile because most coronary disease occurs in people who have only moderate elevations in serum cholesterol (i.e., <240 mg/day), not, however, those at high risk because of high serum cholesterol levels. Similarly, reducing fat (especially animal fat) intake may substantially reduce the overall risk of certain cancers, even though the cancer-reducing effects for many individuals may be very little or absent.
[...] Objectives Total dietary fat intake should be less than 25% of the calories consumed; saturated fat, less than of calories; and dietary cholesterol, less than 300 mg/day. Consumption of less than three 3-oz servings of red meat per week. Because there is no risk and great potential benefit, some dietitian suggests reducing total fat intake to as low as 10% of calories and totally excluding red meat. Fats, whether as oil, margarine, or butter, provide over twice the calories kcal/g) as carbohydrates kcal/g) and protein kcal/g); hence reducing all fats is the most important way to reduce energy intake and therefore reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. [...]
[...] Red meat has also been associated with an increased risk of colon and other cancers, as well as with coronary artery disease Use dairy products in moderation. Objectives Two to three servings per day of low-fat dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese should be consumed. The optimal intake of calcium remains uncertain and recommendations have varied from 800 to 1500 mg/day. To achieve these levels by diet would necessitate liberal use of dairy products (e.g oz of milk provides 250 to 300 mg calcium). [...]
[...] However, since 80% of dietary sodium generally comes from manufactured and restaurant-prepared foods, patients should be encouraged to read labels and avoid packaged and canned foods that have high sodium contents (i.e., >150 mg per serving), as well as reduce their intake of steak and soy sauce, bouillon cubes, prepared soups, chips, and crackers Use protein-rich foods in moderation. Objectives Less than two to three servings per day of high-protein foods (i.e., poultry, fish, and nuts) should be consumed. Consume less than three 3-oz servings of red meat and eggs per week. [...]
[...] half consume less than one serving of fruit per day, and total dietary fiber intake is consistently below the minimum recommended level of 20 g/day. Relative to the goal of at least 80% of people not salting their food at the table, only about 60 to 70% of adults report that they avoid using table salt. By contrast, based on data obtained between the late 1970s and the early 1990s, a larger proportion of adults were selecting diets lower in fat. [...]
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