Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects roughly 5% of children in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). The specific criteria needed for identifying ADHD in children has been laid out in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association. Physicians, psychologists, and neurologists, as well as others in the medical field who have been approved to diagnose and treat ADHD in children, follow these specific criteria in identification and treatment of the disorder.
[...] Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder graduate high school with no significant problems and even go on to successfully complete higher education. A study published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, (Biederman et al., (2004), suggests that the difference in academic performance in children diagnosed with ADHD has to do with executive functioning deficits, or EFD's. David Rabiner, Ph.D, senior research scientist at Duke University, says, “Executive functions (EFs) can be thought of as the decision-making and planning processes that help to control and direct our behavior.” (Rabiner, 2005). [...]
[...] Once a general diagnosis of ADHD has been made, a more specific diagnosis of ADHD type can be made and the child will be diagnosed with the predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or combined type. For very young children, additional specialists may need to be consulted during diagnoses. Children preschool age or younger will usually be evaluated by a psychologist or psychiatrist, speech pathologist, or developmental pediatrician, in addition to a family physician (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2009). Treatments of ADHD Once diagnosis is positively reached and the specific type is identified, treatment can proceed. [...]
[...] The tools used to help a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder achieve a positive self-esteem are the same as for any other child. There are five basic tips given by Dr. Chris Steer for improving self-esteem in children. The first is to praise and reward, for both small and large actions. The second tip is to express love unconditionally and make it clear the child is trusted. Assistance in setting and attaining realistically achievable goals will grow a child's self-esteem. Also, encouraging interests and hobbies will promote positive self-esteem by the achievement of new skills and positive interaction with peers. [...]
[...] Self-esteem and self-perception becomes a problem when other individuals do not understand the behavior enacted by a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and so judge them because of expressed ADHD symptoms. As a result, many children with ADHD find it difficult to make and keep friends (Steer, 2007). They have problems with teachers in school and sometimes difficulties at home. ADHD children may often be punished for disrupting different situations (Steer, 2007). All of these instances have an effect on a child's self-esteem. [...]
[...] Fidgeting is characteristic of individuals diagnosed with predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD. In small children, this type can be identified by constant running, jumping, or climbing. Impulsiveness is another characteristic of this type, leading to conversation interrupting, trouble waiting turns, difficulty with directions, and increased accidents and injuries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). The third category of ADHD diagnoses is a combined type that includes characteristics present in both predominantly inattentive and in predominantly hyperactive-impulsive types. Individuals placed in the combined type group display symptoms of the other two groups in equal levels of intensity (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). [...]
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