The pain often makes the patient unfit physically and emotionally by both cluttering and subvert the behavior of the sore subject. The pain prevents you from thinking coherently and induces the patient to seek treatment or relief.According to a reliable model, the pain consists of four components, namely nocicezione, feeling, suffering, and behavior. The term pain is a generic name given to all kinds of unpleasant experiences. The actual perception of this state is based on a list of modifying factors, ranging from memory of previous painful events to psychological influences, including the state of stress, alteration in mood, the expectation of treatment and the hope of healing. The pain is not merely sensory experience, but rather the result of an elaboration turning to the next level. The brain is not a mere reservoir of afferent nerve, sensory or pain, but a computer of these inputs.With regard to diagnostic tests, doctors deem appropriate and useful, in substantial agreement between them, 18 common methods of examination and diagnosis, such as standard radiography, CT scan and electromyography. However, there is little consensus and little empirical basis on which to rely in choosing the most suitable instrument for measuring pain. The measurement of pain is evolving, the categorization has changed and methods have been developed and refined.From a clinical point of view is often impractical to examine the relationship between nocicezione and response to pain, because in certain pain syndromes (phantom limb or trigeminal neuralgia), the original stimulus is absent. Consequently, in order to assess the experience of pain, measurement tools have been traditionally based on subjective data, placing the emphasis on feeling, on the suffering and the behavior of the patient rather than on nocicezione.
[...] Need to Measure Pain The measurement of pain is useful for several reasons. First is a starting point from which to assess future therapeutic interventions. It important to note the degree of impairment or disability for treating or legal reasons. Many of the tools of evaluation show discriminatory qualities and can help the clinician in the diagnosis of a specific condition. Furthermore, some methods of assessment have the specific ability to differentiate the real patient suffering from simulator and to assess the influence of personality on the pain. [...]
[...] To achieve a measurement of pain has recommended a subjective / objective. The variables of pain, such as intensity, frequency and quality are assessed by subjective methods such as self. The disability, expressed as lack of movement, inability to work or difficulties in interpersonal relations, and certain attitudes associated with pain that are expressed by facial grimaces, vocalization and postural attitudes, can be easily analyzed and measured. Can be objectively quantified the effects of therapy or other interventions. A usual criterion for measuring pain is based on the method of assessment, for example, observed behavior and physiological assessments. [...]
[...] Groups of specific terms were incorporated into an instrument for measuring pain, the Pain Index Ratig in turn embedded in the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Many doctors have found themselves in agreement with the use of descriptive terms to distinguish the different pain syndromes. The greater their participation to patients suffering from pain, the more they appreciate this mode of assessment. The major limitation of these questionnaires may be that many of the adjectives are not reported by the popular media of the patients (the elderly, limited culture, etc . [...]
[...] Scale of facial expressions The measurement of pain in children is more difficult. Children do not have the verbal and conceptual understanding of adults, let alone are able to complete a visual analogue scale before 7 years. The objective methods of data collection are much more reliable than in adults. An innovative non- verbal method is the scale of facial expressions. These scales generally consist of a series of drawings depicting various facial expressions, which represent changes in severity of pain. [...]
[...] Its release is associated with reduction in intensity of pain perceived. It follows that the endogenous opioids beta- endorphins can be an objective marker of pain perception. Unfortunately is also released during the effort, and therefore can not be considered pathognomonic. The usefulness of clinical measurements and laboratory evoked potentials in the assessment of pain has been considered. It was a relative but not absolute difference between the potential related to the somatoestesici and subjective descriptions of pain. The experience of pain is impossible to measure directly and the observer, then, must inevitably be based on the description of pain given by the patient and to demonstrate the merits observing the behavior associated. [...]
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