Abuse of pharmacologically active substances has attracted in recent decades numerous pharmacological studies, using a wide range of models and methods, and generating a considerable literature. Several reasons explain this trend: first, of course, the extent of the scourge, the severity of their individual and social, and finding effective treatments, but also the fact that this disorder is extraordinarily easy to reproduce in the 'animals, unlike many diseases affecting the psychiatric sphere. Hence the possibility of combining an infinite number of species studied, the modalities of experience, the products examined, the pre-treatment, stimuli, concurrent influences, tests and measures, to test hypotheses ever specified Correspondence and renewed fairly obvious between the laboratory and the clinic are on the whole a good relevance to all this research. In addition, finally the idea that this field of investigation explores a privileged interface between biology hard on one side and the other somewhat intangible psychological concepts such as motivations and emotions: the unveiling chemical substance behind our mental activities and emotions more elaborate, substance abuse awakens questioning our fundamental condition human.
[...] Conclusion A good representation of the phenomena involved in the pharmacological substance abuse be useful for any therapist involved in the care of patients or drug-drug addicts. The dependence of pharmacologically active is not just the big drug addicts. In its various forms, it affects a significant proportion of the population believe the abuse of tobacco, alcohol or coffee, to polypharmacy or overconsumption of psychotropic drugs that characterize our society, fond of self in all its forms. However, it is rare that an individual would first consult their doctor to correct a problem of substance abuse. [...]
[...] Of course, it would be foolish to try to reduce the whole problem of substance abuse to its biological, or taken over by the only prescription medicament treatment. Without denying the psychological and social approaches, we say pharmacology that simply provides some useful concepts in the understanding of clinical situations and rational decisions. The purpose of this manual is not to make an exhaustive review of the pharmacological literature on acute and chronic effects of different substances causing dependence, as we found in the description in excellent books. [...]
[...] Overbright weaning may also be triggered by the administration of an antagonist of the substance consumed abuse: naloxone (Narcan for opioids, flumazenil (anexate for benzodiazepines. In contrast, a declining pattern allows staggered withdrawal in time, but narrowing extending symptoms. Therapeutic Implications Again, a crucial time of the intervention is simply to make the patient the vicious cycle of physical dependence, and to show the mechanisms contributing to maintain consumption. Repeat again that the decision of the patient is weaned, and that would take its place usually does not make sense. [...]
[...] It refers to the observation that repeated exposure to a substance is accompanied by a gradual increase in the response of a dose to another. The curve of the dose-response relationship and moves to the left for these effects (although it can move to the right for other effects producing tolerance). Awareness is typically observed in rodents exposed to stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines), and which features motor stereotypies at doses increasingly weak. The mechanism underlying this awareness is unclear. It is apparent to the phenomenon of kindling (kindling), in which repeated electrical stimulation on the cerebral cortex show an epileptogenic focus with sensitivity threshold is lowered more and more. [...]
[...] Influences Several factors modulate the effect largely related to strengthening the administration of a psychotropic drug: First, the nature of the substance itself, which derives its intrinsic efficiency for the induction of dependence. The latter, we have seen, derived largely from the ability to stimulate dopamine secretion in the mesencephalon. It is highest for stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines) and opiates (heroin, morphine). It is clear for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines. So interesting, it is low for the lysergamide (LSD) and caffeine, two substances inducing psychotropic considered little psychological dependence. [...]
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