The discipline of public health is a relatively new discipline addressing both old and new problems in all areas of health, including physical and mental. Given the limited funding sources and the endless public health concerns to be addressed, the faces of public health (business/private sector, service/public sector, social/non-profit sector) create quite a political environment when distributing financial support. Furthermore, there are many ideologies that surround the values and projects of global health. One striking idea is that of vaccinologist Maurice Hilleman who believed there should be a vaccine for every disease. Given that declaration, it is of interest to note the status of disease interventions, especially infectious diseases, in current global public health initiatives.
[...] Many social justice issues and global health concerns surround the potential factors of the herpes simplex virus prevalence among women (e.g. Reynolds et al and Roe, 2004). One study in various US cities “found HSV-2 infections in 36% of women ages 40-49 and nearly 30% of women ages 50-59. In all age groups, more women than men tested positive” (Harvard College p. 6). Another study in India noted that both HSV and HIV acquisition occurred more among women than men (Anuradha et al., 2008). [...]
[...] Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition in India. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187(10) Roe, V.A. (2004). Living with genital herpes: How effective is antiviral therapy? Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 206-215. Schacker, T., Zeh, J., Hu, H.L., Hill, J., Corey, L. (1998). Frequency of symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 reactivations among HIV-infected men. The Journal of Infection Diseases 1616–1622. Serwadda, D., Gray, R.H., Sewankambo, N.K., et al. (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a nested case-control study in Rakai, Uganda. [...]
[...] Considering these factors, an appropriate response might be to gather the HSV response allies, to develop greater programs in health education that will address the biology and the stigmas of herpes simplex virus. In accord with this project, advocates may want to adapt the public health ideology of Barbara Starfield, MD of John Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, who promotes foremost the investment in health care systems. Through the health care systems, greater prevention (health education programs, vaccination trials, herpes screening, and provision of contraceptives) and control (antiviral therapy and client counseling services) can occur, if administered in the spirit of public health and social welfare, without stigmatization. [...]
[...] A survey of the literature notes the major funding factors in communicable disease research and interventions to include: prevalence of disease (how many people are affected and which populations are primarily affected), mortality rates in relation to the disease, potential for a cure and/or eradication, cost-benefit of intervention (including benefits to patients, governments, funders, and pharmaceutical companies), and the public and private advocacy for a response to the disease (i.e. what is the intensity of the advocacy for a response and from who is it coming) (e.g. [...]
[...] Projection of the future dimensions and costs of the genital herpes simplex type 2 epidemic in the United States. Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 608-622. Fleming, D.T., and Wasserheit, J.N. (1999). From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: The contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sexually Transmitted Infections 3–17. Garnett, G.P. (2005, February 2). Role of herd immunity in determining the effect of vaccines against sexually transmitted disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases S97-S106. [...]
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