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24 Sep 2012

Building strong civil societies in Eastern Europe after the fall of communism: Poland, Romania, and the importance of pre-existing social roots

Case study - 6 pages - International relations

Throughout Eastern Europe, embryonic civil societies have demonstrated in various ways but with the same result their crucial role in the advent of democracy in the early 1990s : within a few years, Eastern European communist governments were forced to cede power and...

16 Aug 2012

What happened to the social state in Eastern Europe after 1990?

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

After the breakdown of the Soviet Union, each Eastern European and former Soviet country faced many challenges and one of them was how to cope with the welfare state under a different political organization. Now that the Soviet rule was gone, what was the road to be taken? Should the State...

03 Mar 2011

Strategic analysis of Swatch Group for its establishment in the countries of Eastern Europe

Case study - 36 pages - Services marketing

Luxury in an economic context, the well differentiated and well aware of luxury based on its price elasticity. When the price of property increases and demand decreases, we call this product a good current. When the price increases and demand increases, we call it a luxury good, although Veblen...

29 Sep 2010

In your view could the collapse of socialism/ communism have been avoided or postponed in Central and Eastern Europe?

Essay - 3 pages - Political science

The main issue is indeed to know whether the system of the Soviet Union could have been reformed in order to last longer. Some reforms could have been conceivable but they were so deep, so huge that it would have led to a complete transformation of the whole system with, for example, redefining...

29 Sep 2010

The role of Poland in EU policies toward Eastern Europe: is Poland a bridge between East and West?

Essay - 4 pages - European union

It is often hard to define a common foreign policy of the EU, as in most cases national interest and bilateral relations are the rule. Nevertheless, some agreements and partnerships have created and enhanced ties between the EU and other countries of Eastern Europe. The enlargement...

29 Sep 2010

Why did communism become established in Eastern Europe after the Second World War?

Essay - 5 pages - Political science

Shortly before the official end of the Second World War, on 25th April 1945, American and Soviet soldiers met at the Elbe. In order to reach the Elbe River, the Russian troops had to come all the way across Europe, thus crossing Eastern Europe. By the end of the same year,...

12 Jan 2009

The role of the European Union in the democratisation of Central and Eastern Europe

Essay - 8 pages - International relations

In the concept of « consolidation of democracy », two aspects can lead to misunderstanding. Firstly, one can interrogate on the direction towards which such a consolidation is supposed to tend, as the word « consolidation » implies that democracy already exists, as something is bound to exist if...

07 May 2009

Communist systems of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

Thesis - 2 pages - International relations

During the XXth century, the communist system, an alternative political system to capitalism, emerged in Russia after the October Revolution. The features of this system are the important ideologies, the role of the communist party, the central planned economy and also the terror that took place...

28 May 2009

Is culture an intrinsic element of management and leadership: Eastern Europe against Western Europe?

Thesis - 14 pages - Social sciences

Since the quickening of the Industrial Revolution in United Kingdom in 1850 there is no doubt that Europe sustained important cultural changes. The aura of this revolution crossed the Channel and pervaded in Europe but only went in western countries ready to change, France the...

29 Sep 2009

Conditions of the labor market that encourage foreign investments in Central and Eastern Europe

Thesis - 9 pages - International relations

Today, a well known economic phenomenon is that the foreign investments in the Central and Eastern Europe have been flooded, since 1989. Amongst many other economic data, we could include that in 2003, 29 billions dollars were invested by foreign companies. This figure is not easy...

15 Jan 2009

Why did communism become established in Eastern Europe after the Second World War? - published: 15/01/2009

Essay - 7 pages - Modern history

On the 25th of April 1945, shortly before the official end of the Second World War, American and Soviet soldiers meet at the Elbe river. But to reach the Elbe river, the Russian troops had to come all the way across Europe, and so across Eastern Europe. By the end of the...

24 Jul 2006

What were the central features of Stalinism in Eastern Europe?

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

The term “Stalinism” refers to the brutal dictatorship which lasted from 1927 to 1953 in Russia and Eastern European countries. Although he was the leader of Soviet Russia, after the Second World War Stalin soon became the dictator of a Soviet Union which had expanded to most of...

17 May 2009

Two years after: What has the eastern enlargement brought to the European Union?

Thesis - 4 pages - European union

“The future of Europe never appeared so dubious. Neither did some of its possible futures appear so promising” affirms Jean-Paul Fitoussi in his book devoted to the problems of the conflict between the national interests and the requirements of convergence in Europe1. In fact,...

07 Apr 2023

To What Extent Have the United States and Europe Grown Closer or Further Apart After September 11?

Essay - 4 pages - International relations

September 11, 2001 appears to be a major turning point in the American management of foreign affairs. Europe, as a major partner and ally, is also impacted by this attack. The objective of our analysis will be to determine the consequences of these. Moreover, the exponential rise in power...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a "Europe-puissance" or towards a free trade zone?

Course material - 8 pages - International relations

The development of the European Union, along the line of constant progress towards more integration, which more or less prevailed since 1950, appeared to stop suddenly in May 2005 with the French "No" to the so-called Constitutional Treaty. That problem has been solved, at least for now, with the...

07 Aug 2018

Anatomy of the Russian disinformation campaign: understanding the complexity of a covert network as part of state policy and a military tool against Europe

Tutorials/exercises - 73 pages - Journalism

About two decades ago, it was impossible to imagine that foreign disinformation could actually affect the policy decision making or disturb social cohesion and solidarity in European countries. Back then, media outlets such as television, radio stations and newspapers enjoyed munificent funding...

11 Mar 2015

Middle Eastern Studies

Case study - 2 pages - Educational studies

The last century, particularly after World War 2, has witnessed high levels of conflict and warfare within the Middle East(Richards and Waterbury 345). The most predominant and extended conflict is that of the Arab-Israeli conflict which has born five major wars and is still at play even unto...

07 Jul 2015

Council of Europe

Case study - 4 pages - Educational studies

Julie Ringelheim also regrets the lack of definition in the Convention. The supervisory bodies have refused to broad interpretation But since large denominations, atypical movements benefit. No international convention gives. Moreover, faced with this difficulty, the Strasbourg Court was...

10 Jul 2013

How far do you agree with the view that "the Soviet Union expanded into Europe because of the desire to acquire superpower status"?

Case study - 4 pages - Educational studies

By the middle of 1944, the Soviet Union's Red Army was on the offensive and was pushing the Germans firstly out of the USSR, then out of Eastern Europe. When the governments in the Eastern European countries collapsed one after another with the departure of the German forces,...

29 Sep 2010

Transitions in South East Europe - Case Study : Serbia, Road to Democratization

Essay - 31 pages - International relations

All post-communist countries experienced public dissatisfaction over the economic dislocation of transition to a democratic market economy as well as to the access to pure democratic values. As a result, few anticommunist reformers have won consecutive elections everywhere in Eastern...

16 Jan 2009

Current Polish foreign policy towards Poland's eastern neighbour states: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine (October 2004 - February 2005)

Essay - 10 pages - International relations

Poland has always lied at the crossroads of Europe, as suggested by the title of one of Norman Davies' famous history books Heart of Europe. Intermediate between the West and the East; buffer state; ally or enemy of the main European powers, Poland was once a very powerful country...

29 Sep 2010

The Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE) in the post cold-war Europe

Essay - 5 pages - International relations

The CSCE (Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe) was born with the Helsinki final act in 1975, as the territorial statu quo seemed definitely taken for granted by both the communist block and western countries. On the 1st of August 1975, 35 heads of states from Europe,...

27 Jan 2011

Evolution of the concept of the Rule of Law in Europe

Worksheets - 2 pages - Political science

The concept of the Rule of Law as set down in the Treaty of the European Union or in certain constitutions of the countries in Europe is closely linked to the issues and concerns that are specific to the second half of the twentieth century. It highlighted the fundamental rights, social...

08 Oct 2010

The changing meaning of luxury in Europe

Essay - 50 pages - Business strategy

No longer reserved for the selected few, luxury is now within the reach of a much larger consumer segment. In this analysis we ask Europeans what constitutes „luxury? in their everyday life. As the prospects for obtaining a certain level of material wealth is fulfilled - or it is within...

22 Nov 2012

Cold War essay: Why did the Cold War begin in Europe (1945-1949)?

Case study - 1 pages - Political science

Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, Vladimir Lenin caused the West to mistrust Russia: he abandoned WWI with the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, reneged on all debts of the Tsar, privatized industry, and established the Cominterm. Communism, the guiding principle of the USSR, was incompatible with...

30 Nov 2009

A review on fall of communism in Europe

Thesis - 4 pages - European union

The year 1989 saw the demise of communism in Europe. This impacted the world politics to a great extent. Prior to 1989 there had always been much speculation concerning the future of the communist states, but it had always been misleading. Through all these predictions however, two stood...

30 May 2009

A history of the Black Death and its impact in late medieval Europe

Thesis - 9 pages - Medieval history

The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1347 C.E. and 1351 C.E, reducing the population of Europe by nearly half, and resulting in widespread socio-economic and other changes. Medieval people referred to this catastrophe as the...

08 Oct 2010

Globalization: Knowledge-based economy in Europe

Tutorials/exercises - 31 pages - Economy general

It is a fact that today's European economy is strongly impacted by globalization. European firms have the opportunity to go to the global market. In order to be successful and to achieve a local and international development, those companies have to adapt and to reinvent their strategies. The...

05 Jul 2011

The Order of the Eastern Star: A Vehicle for environmental Good?

Essay - 9 pages - Humanities/philosophy

The Order of the Eastern Star is not, technically, a religion (or, at least, its followers refuse to designate it as such). In the words of the present day Grand Secretary, it is “not intended to replace a religion,” but to complement one. The Order is a fraternal organization...

18 Jun 2010

The birth of a mass society in Europe

Thesis - 8 pages - Medieval history

A corporation is defined as a group of people who are organized and share a common culture, norms and values. Thus, society may be defined as a heterogeneous group of people distinguished by their social status possessing equal rights. They may benefit from the society irrespective of their...