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30 Jul 2022

Towards a Kind of European Constitution? From the Saint-Malo Franco-British Meeting to the Lisbon Treaty (1998-2007)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

In 1998, Prime Minister Blair had to realize that the fact that GB did not participate in the Euro would actually marginalize her inside the European Union. He decided to recover the initiative, and to take up the subject of European defense, where GB could contribute in an...

06 Dec 2013

French's rejection of the European Constitution

Case study - 5 pages - Educational studies

What is the research question in this article? Several months after the French referendum, Gilles Ivaldi is trying to answer to the question “How can we characterize the disapproval of the French referendum on the European Constitutional Treaty held on 29 May 2005?” The main...

09 Jan 2009

To what extent can the Spanish model of citizenship be used for the European Union? Examine the rights and duties of the citizen under the Spanish Constitution as well as the conciliation of various regional aspirations and feelings. In what way is this

Essay - 5 pages - Constitutional law

According to many commentators and journalists, the European Union would be challenged by some crisis, each of them having different natures: for instance, European regions, whereas they could be a good complement for European governance, are increasingly perceived as a...

31 Jul 2022

Towards a European Defense?

Course material - 7 pages - International relations

The problem of a European defense system is not new: we remember the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which was a military alliance between GB, France and the Benelux countries, including a common European general staff which was stationed in Fontainebleau, until it was taken over by NATO...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - The Countries Other than France and Germany

Course material - 8 pages - Political science

France and Germany alone can no longer call the tune in the EU. They henceforth have to take much more into account the agenda of the other members. We shall see first that agenda, regrouping, of course, the different countries into larger groups along their affinities, and then the possible...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - France and Germany

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

Since the origins of the European project, Europe has depended on close Franco-German cooperation. As we have seen, all the big moves forward were possible because of the basic Franco-German agreement; the last major instance was Maastricht in 1992. The other countries had to follow. Of...

30 Jul 2022

The European Union and its International Role - Towards a European Federation? (From the European Conference in The Hague to the Rome Treaties, 1948-1957)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

Already during the war, many Resistance groups asked themselves how to stop the cycle of recurring European wars. After 1945, many groups and associations suggested going back to the European ideas of the 20s, which included the concept of a European Union (Briand Plan of...

30 Jul 2022

Towards a European Confederation? From de Gaulle's Return to Power to the Milan European Summit (1958-1985)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

After the failure of the federal concept and the more prudent approach of the Rome Treaties, for about 30 years, the European Economic Community (EEC) seemed to develop more along the concept of a European Confederation, not a Federation, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers,...

08 Apr 2023

How Does the Constitutional Council Carry Out the Constitutional Review Under the Fifth Republic?

Essay - 5 pages - Constitutional law

The Constitutional Council is defined by the articles of Title VII of the 1958 Constitution. Its arrival in seventh position in the order is indicative of the lack of importance that the constitution grants it. The introduction of a jurisdiction in charge of priority preliminary...

20 Sep 2022

The English Constitution and the Monarchy

Presentation - 16 pages - Constitutional law

This document is a presentation tackling the English Constitution and Monarchy, explaining the rule of law in the United Kingdom.

07 Jul 2015

What are the fundamental principles of the European model of relations between States and religion?

Case study - 4 pages - Educational studies

Furthermore, the Court draws a in concreto analysis of the real potential to seize political power. The Court analyzes the danger. This should be "tangible and immediate." The dissolution of a political party must meet a pressing social need: the Court in Refah, analyzes the chances of completing...

08 Dec 2022

Future Opportunities, Threats, Challenges and Goals of the European Union

Essay - 4 pages - European union

The European Union is the largest and most successful political and economic union in the world, making it a key player. Research on the European Union focuses mainly on its construction, its functioning, the challenges and threats it faces. Our research aims to examine the...

16 Jun 2022

The European employment strategy

Dissertation - 7 pages - European union

Over the last ten years, employment has remained the top concern of Europeans, including new EU members. In fact, due to the lack of change in each national level, EU citizens have grown to trust the European Union more than their own governments to improve their country's...

30 Jul 2022

The development and failure of the European system (1815-1945)

Course material - 7 pages - Modern history

There was a European system before the current European Union. Its roots went back to the 17th century and the Westphalian peace of 1648. It reached its maturity during the 19th century, after the Vienna Congress, and under the impression of 25 years of revolutionary and Napoleonic...

07 Jul 2015

Freedom of religion: an endangered freedom but protected by the European Convention on Human Rights

Case study - 4 pages - Educational studies

To quote Professor Catherine Teitgen-Colly, "political pluralism, respect for human rights and the rule of law have become true" statutory conditions ". In terms of the constituent rights of democratic society, the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Convention are not only individual rights...

29 Jul 2015

Convention and ratification of the Constitution

Essay - 4 pages - Political science

In his book, A Brilliant Solution, Berkin wrote about the American constitutional congress that was challenged by the financial crisis due to repayment burdens on loans incurred during the wartime loans. After the world war in 1784, Congress had no money to fund the Federal treasury. The...

12 Oct 2021

Could colonization have gone differently with Europeans and Indians living together peacefully?

Essay - 1 pages - Medieval history

Between 1775 and 1884, Indian territories in the Americas drastically declined. This decrease in territory has been accompanied by a decrease in the people themselves. Today, we'll try to see if this colonization could have been different, and if those people could have lived together, in...

08 Jan 2015

Core values of International Relations - Saudi Arabian national Constitution

Case study - 5 pages - Educational studies

The Saudi Arabian national Constitution and concept of rule of law is based on the Qur'an, which identifies itself as the rule of law. The 1992 Constitution or the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia clearly states that the kingdom is a sovereign State with Islam as the religion of the...

29 Jul 2015

The European art

Case study - 2 pages - Arts and art history

Art is typically a product of its context. This notion is reflected in the European art from historical to gothic styles. This paper explains this assertion using three examples of art, the cultures in which they were produced, the time periods, and the conventions representing them...

29 Sep 2010

Primacy / Supremacy of European Community Law against Sovereignty of the Member States

Essay - 25 pages - European law

Today the European Union (EU) consists of 27 Member States; it reaches from the Atlantic coast of Western Europe all the way to the Black Sea of Eastern Europe. In the European Union, the most important and closest collaboration between the Member States happens via the...

15 Jan 2009

Nationalism and Regionalism in the era of the making of a common European identity

Essay - 5 pages - European union

The year 2000 will be and have already been pivotal for the European Union. Ten new countries became full members of the Union and Turkey is on his way to the membership. But the 2005 failure to make all the countries sign the project of European constitution asks legitimate...

07 May 2009

The democratic deficit of the EU and the European political integration from a French perspective

Thesis - 14 pages - European union

The European construction has always evolved through crisis and this is probably due to its ambitious project and nature. However, it worked successfully until today because it has been occurring through a “step by step process”, to quote the Schuman Declaration. This...

17 May 2009

The future of the state in a global context: Is the European Union a super state?

Thesis - 12 pages - European union

The organization of the world has been changing for the past few decades. Besides the nation sates, a lot of different forms of organization have been coming up. The development of international relations has brought about the need for organizations which enable cooperation between the national...

21 Aug 2008

The contribution made to the concept of the supremacy of European Community Law by the judgment of the European Court of Justice

Essay - 5 pages - International law

The tension between European Community law (EC) and national law is arguably the most debated topic of constitutional law . The convention of Parliamentary supremacy is rooted within the British constitution as a fundamental limb of the separation of powers doctrine ....

13 Jan 2009

What does the European Union's so-called 'democratic deficit' stem from, and how could it be tackled?

Essay - 6 pages - European union

One of the most important discussions in the modern-day European Union concerns the democratic deficit. The Maastricht treaty, which was signed on February 1992 by different European states, claims that the goal the EU is to create ‘an ever closer union among the peoples of...

24 Mar 2010

The foreign policy implications that the treaty on the constitution of Europe signified for the EU in terms of giving it a legal personality

Thesis - 6 pages - European law

Whereas the consequences of the French and Dutch “no” to the referendums proposing the adoption of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe do not stop to rattle the European political class, the innovations it proposed are still dangling. Nonetheless, some major...

19 May 2011

Is the European Union's Charter of Fundamental Rights a necessary and desirable development?

Thesis - 7 pages - Constitutional law

The Treaty of Lisbon came into force in 2009 and alongside it, a reference to the Charter of Fundamental Rights (Charter) gave it legal standing. The Charter became one of the most defining documents the European Union has ever witnessed, or a mere piece of symbolic literature that is...

31 Aug 2006

The party of European socialists and the identity of European social democracy

Essay - 9 pages - Political science

The question wether there is currently something that can be called the crisis of social-democracy is arguable: after all, social-democractic and socialist parties are still the counterpart of Conservatives and Christian-democrats, sharing alternaltively government responsibilities at national...

15 Jan 2009

"The national influence on the European integration"

Essay - 7 pages - International relations

EU is regulated by a supranational institutional system, which still takes into account the national sensitiveness. Nevertheless, there is not a traditional strong supranational authority. Indeed, there is neither army nor police, and the decision making process is mainly based on consensus; and...

29 Sep 2010

The European Union will never be fully democratic: discuss

Essay - 8 pages - European union

On 13th October 2005 was launched the Commission's “Plan D” for Democracy, Dialogue and Debate, which intends to “lay the foundations for the profound debate about Europe's future” in order to “mak[e] the European Union more democratic” . This strategy is a...