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Theme : Maastricht treaty

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30 Jul 2022

Towards a Kind of European Constitution? From the Saint-Malo Franco-British Meeting to the Lisbon Treaty (1998-2007)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

In 1998, Prime Minister Blair had to realize that the fact that GB did not participate in the Euro would actually marginalize her inside the European Union. He decided to recover the initiative, and to take up the subject of European defense, where GB could contribute in an important way, because...

30 Jul 2022

The European Union and its International Role - Towards a European Federation? (From the European Conference in The Hague to the Rome Treaties, 1948-1957)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

Already during the war, many Resistance groups asked themselves how to stop the cycle of recurring European wars. After 1945, many groups and associations suggested going back to the European ideas of the 20s, which included the concept of a European Union (Briand Plan of 1930). They stressed...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - France and Germany

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

Since the origins of the European project, Europe has depended on close Franco-German cooperation. As we have seen, all the big moves forward were possible because of the basic Franco-German agreement; the last major instance was Maastricht in 1992. The other countries had to follow. Of...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a Federation of Nation-States? - From the Milan summit to the Nice one (1985-2000)

Course material - 7 pages - Modern history

To try to describe the aim of the European Construction at the beginning of the 90ies, Jacques Delors, president of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995, invented the concept of a Federation of Nation-States. An oxymoron? What does national sovereignty become in such a system? But still it...

08 Dec 2022

Future Opportunities, Threats, Challenges and Goals of the European Union

Essay - 4 pages - European union

The European Union is the largest and most successful political and economic union in the world, making it a key player. Research on the European Union focuses mainly on its construction, its functioning, the challenges and threats it faces. Our research aims to examine the responsibilities and...

04 Aug 2022

EU relations in the wake of the 21st century

Essay - 6 pages - Modern history

Eastern and Western Europe were separated in the aftermath of the Second World War by their rapprochement with one of the two great victorious powers, the USSR and the United States. Rebuild = European countries reduced their military budgets and thus find themselves at a disadvantage in the face...

30 Jul 2022

Towards a European Confederation? From de Gaulle's Return to Power to the Milan European Summit (1958-1985)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

After the failure of the federal concept and the more prudent approach of the Rome Treaties, for about 30 years, the European Economic Community (EEC) seemed to develop more along the concept of a European Confederation, not a Federation, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, Robert Schuman or...

31 Jul 2022

Towards a European Defense?

Course material - 7 pages - International relations

The problem of a European defense system is not new: we remember the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which was a military alliance between GB, France and the Benelux countries, including a common European general staff which was stationed in Fontainebleau, until it was taken over by NATO in 1951,...

11 Jun 2013
doc

Critically evaluate the institutional reforms enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty

Case study - 5 pages - Political science

Signed in 2007 and entered in force in 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon is in fact the combination of two pieces of legislation. The first one is a new version for the Treaty of the European Union (TEU). The second one is a replacement of the former Treaty of the European Community...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a "Europe-puissance" or towards a free trade zone?

Course material - 8 pages - International relations

The development of the European Union, along the line of constant progress towards more integration, which more or less prevailed since 1950, appeared to stop suddenly in May 2005 with the French "No" to the so-called Constitutional Treaty. That problem has been solved, at least for now,...

12 Jul 2011
doc

European Union Law - Commentary: Article 4 of the EU Treaty (Member States' sovereignty/cooperation duties)

Thesis - 4 pages - European law

The document we are going to comment on is the article 4 of the EU Treaty, as modified by the Lisbon Treaty. It highlights the fact that the EU membership implies a great number of consequences for the member States. According to this article, although some rights belonging to the...

27 Jan 2011
doc

How are competences between the EU and the Member States with the Treaty of Lisbon controlled?

Essay - 4 pages - International relations

The European Union (EU), as we know it today, is the result of decade-long integration efforts, and officially came into being with the Schuman Declaration on 9 May 1950. The process of the European construction has been a lengthy one; the primary goal behind a European entity was to prevent the...

24 Mar 2010
doc

The foreign policy implications that the treaty on the constitution of Europe signified for the EU in terms of giving it a legal personality

Thesis - 6 pages - European law

Whereas the consequences of the French and Dutch “no” to the referendums proposing the adoption of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe do not stop to rattle the European political class, the innovations it proposed are still dangling. Nonetheless, some major points...

29 Sep 2010
doc

The European Union and the democratic deficit

Essay - 13 pages - European union

The Convention of the the European Council of Laeken in 2001, was put in charge of drafting a new treaty for Europe. The main objective of this draft Treaty was to clearly define: “how to bring citizens closer to the European aim, and to European Institutions, by organizing...

27 Jan 2011
doc

Is the euro a success?

Essay - 13 pages - European union

Now accused of all evils (stifling exports, slowing growth, feeding speculation, etc.), the euro seems to have become everybody's favorite scapegoat. Yet it remains that this currency is a unique experience (a single currency managed jointly by several countries), and it is undeniable that the...

23 Nov 2009
doc

Report on Vodafone's success strategy in Europe

Tutorials/exercises - 59 pages - Business strategy

Following the Schumann declaration (1950) the European Economic Community (EEC) or Common Market, of six nations was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Since this time, the number of member states has increased to fifteen, and successive treaties have gradually strengthened the...

24 Nov 2021

The precautionary principle and its consequences upon the community legal order: gmos and bse

Essay - 28 pages - European law

Concentrating on the expression itself it is clear that the word "principle? implies a peculiar importance given to the "precaution?. It is to say that the principle of precaution is a principle of law, even if it is not clear how and where this scope has been given: some would say in Treaties,...

27 Jan 2011
doc

The European financial crisis and the future of the euro

Essay - 3 pages - European union

Europe has suffered from the recent subprime financial crisis, which has spread through the stock markets in all developed market economies. This crisis will bring these countries to an economic downturn, which will perhaps, allow them to take stock, and hopefully help them avoid repeating the...

13 Jan 2009
doc

Britain and the euro: not for yesterday, not for today, not for ever...?

Essay - 14 pages - Finance

The EMS's Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) has long been a source of political controversy, playing for instance a relevant part in the final drama of Margaret Thatcher's resignation as a serving Prime Minister. Britain entered the ERM in 1990 to exit from it in 1992 and afterward, the new...

01 Feb 2014
doc

Foster v. British Gas plc: A European mirror of the French Public Service?

Law case - 4 pages - European law

Most of the developed states are aware of what public service is through facts. But only a few of them have come up with a legal definition of what it really is. In French Administrative law, the notion of public service has never been and will never be easily displayed. Major academics are still...

29 Sep 2010
doc

Should Turkey join tne european union ?

Thesis - 21 pages - International relations

In the 1960s, a community of nations like France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux covered almost all economic sectors, introduced the future common market framework, and established common policies for agriculture, transports, international relations, and regional cohesion. The integrating...

11 May 2009
doc

The European employment strategy - published: 11/05/2009

Thesis - 21 pages - European union

The European Union is the most accomplished multinational organization in the world. Since it's beginning in 1950, with the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Union has been integrating more and more, becoming a unique. The European Union was at first, based on economic performances....

15 Jan 2009
doc

The Democratic Deficit in the EU

Essay - 7 pages - European union

For years, the European construction appeared to be legitimate through a 'permissive consensus' since no significant opposition to the integration process was to be noticed. Nevertheless, a major debate underlined a 'democratic deficit' in the 1980s, denouncing that the European...

16 Jan 2009
doc

The Cecchini report - 20 years later

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

With the Maastricht Treaty, in 1992, the European Community will now be a single market composed of twelve countries, with no more barriers between them. This change was of course studied and analyzed before coming into force. The European Commission, in 1986, mandated Mr Cecchini...

03 Feb 2011
doc

What is the future for Euro?

Essay - 5 pages - European union

In 2009, the euro was the official currency of 330 million users, located in 16 countries in Europe, and accounted for about 16% of global GDP. The single currency of the Euro zone is now the second most important currency in the world, and enjoys a broad consensus about its effectiveness. The...

13 Jan 2009
doc

The Committee of the Regions

Thesis - 3 pages - European union

The construction of the European Union is, and has always been done by states. Since the Maastricht treaty however, sub national authorities have an official advisory body from which they can influence the making of the European policy: the Committee of the regions. This committee...

13 Jan 2009
doc

What does the European Union's so-called 'democratic deficit' stem from, and how could it be tackled?

Essay - 6 pages - European union

One of the most important discussions in the modern-day European Union concerns the democratic deficit. The Maastricht treaty, which was signed on February 1992 by different European states, claims that the goal the EU is to create ‘an ever closer union among the peoples of...

29 Sep 2010
doc

The Euro: Costs & Benefits for France

Essay - 3 pages - Economy general

On the 1st of January 1999, the euro went into circulation as a common currency for eleven of the fifteen European Union countries, with Greece joining in 2001. France joined in 1999. The ratification of the Maastricht treaty in November of 1993 provoked the creation of the European...

29 Sep 2010
doc

The role of the ECJ's (European Court of Justice) : the consumer who is reasonably well-informed and reasonably observant and circumspect

Essay - 14 pages - European law

The legal term of the “average consumer” was created by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to protect the average consumer against unfair commercial practises. After the Second War World, many states were indeed inspired by Keynes's theory that aimed at division of resources and...

29 Sep 2010
doc

The Stability Pact

Essay - 5 pages - Constitutional law

“The Stability Pact is stupid, like all decisions that are rigid […]” this declaration made by Romano Prodi in an interview for the French newspaper: Le Monde in October 2002 had given a nasty turn to the economical and political European scene. This quotation of the former...