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30 Jul 2022

The European Union and its International Role - Towards a European Federation? (From the European Conference in The Hague to the Rome Treaties, 1948-1957)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

Already during the war, many Resistance groups asked themselves how to stop the cycle of recurring European wars. After 1945, many groups and associations suggested going back to the European ideas of the 20s, which included the concept of a European Union (Briand Plan of 1930). They stressed...

31 Jul 2022

The Interplay of National and European Considerations in the Foreign Policy of EU Members - France and Germany

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

Since the origins of the European project, Europe has depended on close Franco-German cooperation. As we have seen, all the big moves forward were possible because of the basic Franco-German agreement; the last major instance was Maastricht in 1992. The other countries had to follow. Of course,...

30 Jul 2022

Towards a European Confederation? From de Gaulle's Return to Power to the Milan European Summit (1958-1985)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

After the failure of the federal concept and the more prudent approach of the Rome Treaties, for about 30 years, the European Economic Community (EEC) seemed to develop more along the concept of a European Confederation, not a Federation, as envisioned by the Founding Fathers, Robert Schuman or...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a "Europe-puissance" or towards a free trade zone?

Course material - 8 pages - International relations

The development of the European Union, along the line of constant progress towards more integration, which more or less prevailed since 1950, appeared to stop suddenly in May 2005 with the French "No" to the so-called Constitutional Treaty. That problem has been solved, at least for now,...

31 Jul 2022

Towards a European Defense?

Course material - 7 pages - International relations

The problem of a European defense system is not new: we remember the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which was a military alliance between GB, France and the Benelux countries, including a common European general staff which was stationed in Fontainebleau, until it was taken over by NATO in 1951,...

01 Aug 2022

Towards a Federation of Nation-States? - From the Milan summit to the Nice one (1985-2000)

Course material - 7 pages - Modern history

To try to describe the aim of the European Construction at the beginning of the 90ies, Jacques Delors, president of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995, invented the concept of a Federation of Nation-States. An oxymoron? What does national sovereignty become in such a system? But still it...

29 Mar 2022

How could international law support a transition to renewable sources of energy?

Essay - 4 pages - International law

Climate change is an international issue. Indeed, no matter how much greenhouse gases emissions decrease in Europe, if the world does not act collectively climate change and its consequences will continue. But climate change is not only an international topic, it intersects with many...

28 Jan 2023

Between 1856 and 1914, how did the authority of the central power try to build and impose itself on the multiethnic Russian imperial domain despite the rise of national affirmations?

Essay - 9 pages - Political science

On the eve of World War I in 1914, Russia is one of the most backward powers and the entire political system collapses in 1917 with the Russian Revolution. However, these two elements are opposed to the will of the tsar Alexander II in 1856, who, after the defeat of the Crimean War, decided to...

04 Jun 2023

The Birth of a Nation: North America

Course material - 5 pages - Medieval history

From the period of English colonization to the attainment of independence, various groups of migrants, including the French and Spanish, played significant roles. However, our focus will be on the English migrants who were instrumental in shaping the course of history during this era. The...

10 Jan 2011

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713)

Thesis - 5 pages - Modern history

This text is an excerpt from the Treaty of Peace and Friendship signed in Utrecht on 11 April 1713 between France and Great Britain. This treaty precedes that of July 13, 1713 of the agreement between Great Britain and Spain. After fourteen months of arduous negotiations...

08 Aug 2022

The Wilsonian tradition and its limits (1914-1945)

Course material - 6 pages - Modern history

President Wilson (1913-1920) renounced isolationism, which was the American tradition since Monroe: in agreement with his progressive agenda, he believed the US had to act abroad. He promoted a new internationalist doctrine. But he failed to convince either the foreign partners of the US, or, at...

24 Mar 2010

The foreign policy implications that the treaty on the constitution of Europe signified for the EU in terms of giving it a legal personality

Thesis - 6 pages - European law

Whereas the consequences of the French and Dutch “no” to the referendums proposing the adoption of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe do not stop to rattle the European political class, the innovations it proposed are still dangling. Nonetheless, some major points...

04 Oct 2022

American Cultural Aspects for Business

Course material - 11 pages - Modern history

America has been created from the East to the West. The West is a concept in history, for an American it is often associated with the idea of frontier. In the 19th century St-Louis (Missouri) was considered as the gate way to the West, when people went to the West they went directly to Oregon or...

30 Jan 2017

World War I

Essay - 2 pages - Modern history

In June of 1914, one man by the name of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, was assassinated. The death of this man would ultimately lead to the bloodiest conflict in all of human history up to that point. This assassination was the final trigger in the tension that was brewing between...

04 Jun 2023

What future for the French economy after the Covid-19 crisis? - The "France 2030" investment plan proposed by President Macron

Essay - 6 pages - Economic politics

In 2020, the health crisis caused a recession of -7.9% for France. France had a fairly stable economy before the crisis and the various confinements led to a negative evolution of the economy as well as a recession in GDP. The French economy is growing little but resisting the crisis. For...

21 Jan 2009

The treaty of Versailles

Essay - 4 pages - Modern history

World War I (1914-1918) left the European continent completely devastated (especially France and Belgium). Human and material losses were massive. Indeed, about 10 million lives had been lost during the war. In order to prevent this nightmare from happens again, the victorious powers (the...

04 Aug 2022

US Foreign Policy since 2001: President Bush's first term

Course material - 11 pages - Political science

The period since 2001 has been a highly active one for the US: they waged a war in Afghanistan, another in Iraq and they may be preparing another one against Iran. The official rational in Washington, at least initially, for that activity, under the motto of "the war against terror", was the...

30 Mar 2021

What are the potential consequences and influence of the brexit on the UK and the EU?

Essay - 5 pages - European union

The term Brexit is an abbreviation of British Exit, which means the leaving of the United Kingdom from the European Union. January 1, 1973, is a key date for the United Kingdom: it saw its entry into the European Union (EU). But on June 23, 2016, a general referendum was held on whether Britain...

03 Jun 2009

World war I: Timeline

Time lines - 20 pages - Modern history

World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict lasting from 1914 C.E. to 1919 C.E. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey, called the Central Powers fought Britain, France and later U.S.A., called the Allies. No...

03 Feb 2011

The conditions of admissibility of reservations in the Vienna Convention

Essay - 5 pages - International law

Paragraph 4 of Article 20 shows that the Vienna Convention contains a rigid principle of unanimous acceptance of reservations. It reads "The acceptance of a reservation by another contracting State of the reserving State a party to the treaty in relation to that other State if the...

10 Nov 2014

The American revolution: Case study in detail

Thesis - 17 pages - Modern history

In 1763, the Treaty of Versailles ended the Seven Years War between France and Spain against Great Britain. The victory of the latter (gain of French, Canada, of all the territories east of the Mississippi except New Orleans, and with Spanish, Florida) was certainly a matter of immense...

15 Jan 2009

Why has the Franco German partnership played such a pivotal role throughout the development of the European Community

Essay - 5 pages - International relations

After the end of the World War Two, France and Germany experienced hostile relations. Indeed, from 1945 to 1950, the two countries were both traumatized by the souvenir of their mutual occupation. On the French side, the Nazi's occupation had created a feeling of revenge, and on the German's one,...

30 Dec 2010

Counterfeiting in China: A global crisis

Thesis - 25 pages - Economy general

Counterfeiting now represents 5% of world trade and is a growing business especially in the recent years. China has its share of responsibility in this phenomenon. China is now regarded as the leading counterfeiter in the world despite the fact that the figures may not be accurate and verified....

27 Jan 2011

Is the euro a success?

Essay - 13 pages - European union

Now accused of all evils (stifling exports, slowing growth, feeding speculation, etc.), the euro seems to have become everybody's favorite scapegoat. Yet it remains that this currency is a unique experience (a single currency managed jointly by several countries), and it is undeniable that the...

29 Sep 2010

The implementation of the Third Pillar of the European Union in the United Kingdom

Essay - 15 pages - European union

The establishment of the European Union (EU) Policy within the third pillar of the United Kingdom (UK) has changed substantially over the past decades and more with the introduction of the Lisbon Treaty. Originally the UK had been reluctant to acknowledge or embrace European integration,...

10 Jan 2011

The European project of ecotaxes

Essay - 12 pages - Economy general

In October 1991 the European Commission sent the Council a draft action program called the European project of environmental taxes that encouraged members of the European Union to introduce environmental taxes. This project was a sustainable development policy to tax the polluters to make them...

16 Apr 2014

The Kashmir conflict

Case study - 6 pages - Educational studies

When we speak about Kashmir, we think at first of this multitude of conflicts which concerns the history of this country. This territory situated in South Asia is a junction point of India, Pakistan and China. It always generated enormous desire. Without dwell upon the long lineage of dynasties...

15 Jan 2009

The European citizenship

Essay - 3 pages - European union

According to the European Commission, “citizenship of the Union is both a source of legitimation of the process of European integration, by reinforcing the participation of citizens, and a fundamental factor in the creation among citizens of a sense of belonging to the European Union and of...

24 Nov 2021

The precautionary principle and its consequences upon the community legal order: gmos and bse

Essay - 28 pages - European law

Concentrating on the expression itself it is clear that the word "principle? implies a peculiar importance given to the "precaution?. It is to say that the principle of precaution is a principle of law, even if it is not clear how and where this scope has been given: some would say in Treaties,...

17 May 2009

The future of the state in a global context: Is the European Union a super state?

Thesis - 12 pages - European union

The organization of the world has been changing for the past few decades. Besides the nation sates, a lot of different forms of organization have been coming up. The development of international relations has brought about the need for organizations which enable cooperation between the national...