Modern day water supplies in the United States are supported by ground water, aquifers, lakes, and rivers. Water from these sources is then distributed through a collection of pipes into almost all American homes and apartments. Although water distribution is still a very complex system, it is often taken for granted by the public because water is accessible at the turn of a handle day and night. This was not always the case, however Prior to the construction of the first Roman aqueduct, wells, springs, and cisterns provided enough water to sustain cities throughout the Roman Empire. As the population in Roman cities increased, so, too, did the demand for water. Beginning in the 1st c. B.C., the increase in construction of bathing complexes which required large quantities of water further increased water demand.
Keywords: Aqueduct of Troy, Ida Mountains, Appia, Anio Vetus, Marica
[...] Since Ilion is at an elevation of 40 meters above sea level (masl), a water supply located in the Ida mountain range or in its foothills, approximately 20 km away, would have been able to supply the extra height required for gravity flow. Though the Scamander and Kemer rivers are much closer to Ilion than any spring in the Ida Mountains, the rivers are at lower elevations than the city meaning that water would have needed to be pumped from one of the rivers into Ilion. [...]
[...] It was often easier for engineers to lay pipeline(s) across slight depressions and rely upon the pressure from the elevation head to force the water in the pipeline(s) out of the depression and back to a point where gravity flow could take place. Inverted siphons were also utilized, though primarily in the western part of the Empire. (Figure 10) Pipe sections used for pressurized sections, like those in a siphon, would have been similar to pipes used elsewhere with the exception of thicker walls and greater flange and cuff lengths so as to ensure the pipe's ability to withstand the increased pressure. [...]
[...] The aqueduct's water was carried in a trench that was built to a depth of 1.45 m and sparingly lined with waterproof hydraulic mortar (Aylward et al., forthcoming). The water would not have flowed at such a depth but it was necessary for the conduit to have enough height to allow access for maintenance and cleaning as stated above. Presumably there would have been inspection shafts in the underground conduit at regular intervals though none have been found. The conduit trench is unusual in that it does not have masonry walls. [...]
[...] With the Romanization of Ilion came the construction of buildings which were commonplace in Roman public life such as a large public bath and a nymphaeum (public fountain house). Ilion's population increased as residents from some of its neighboring cities flocked to Ilion for protection and the tax-free status that Ilion had been granted by Rome. These factors combined necessitated a water supply that would be capable of fulfilling Ilion's water demands in excess of the city's pre-existing water supplies which included personal and public ground wells, cisterns, and local springs. [...]
[...] Underground portions of aqueducts were built extensively but eventually all aqueducts were forced to forgo their position underground in order to cross a valley or plain, in which case arcades or bridges were implemented. Figure 2. Excavated aqueduct in Figure 3. Possible aqueduct cross- Cologne, Germany (Hodge, 2002). section with cement lining (Hodge, 2002). The arcades of Rome's first three major aqueducts, the Appia (312 B.C.), the Anio Vetus (272-269 B.C.), and the Marica (144 140 B.C.), were made completely from cut stone, also known as masonry. [...]
using our reader.