As Johan Olsen affirms Europeanization is a fashionable but contested concept. This term indeed occupies a lot of space in all studies about the European Union and more specifically about the domestic changes incurred by the member states through the dynamics of European integration. There is not really a shared definition and usually the books devote one chapter to define it . Broadly speaking, Europeanization refers to the European Union's impact on laws, politics, institutions, policies and identities in EU member states . Another definition of Europeanization is given in the chapter 15 of Bulmer and Lequesne (2000) : Europeanization consists of processes of construction, diffusion and institutionalisation of formal and informal rules, procedures, policy paradigms, styles, ways of doing things, and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the EU policy process and then incorporated in the logic of domestic discourse, political structures and public policies.
[...] First the British public policy has been Europeanized since the membership to the European Union as many core competences of public policy have been surrendered by Britain and transferred to the Community in accordance with the treaties the latter corresponding the community pillar of the European Union identified by the treaty of Maastricht operating on a supranational basis. The membership to the Union in 1973 meant the adoption of the acquis communautaire and the common public policies developed by the founding members of the Community. [...]
[...] According to Sir Stephen Wall, Tony Blair's Europe adviser and Head of the European Secretariat in the Cabinet Office in 2002, the European integration had had a “fairly radical impact” especially since the 1980s and fostered a Europeanization of government and the machinery of public policy, being it European public policy translated into British public policy or British public policy made at the level of the member state. Heath wanted to encourage national ministers to consider Europe as integrally connected to domestic politics and because of the traditional functional and territorial distributions of responsibility within Whitehall. [...]
[...] British public policy has been largely Europeanized since the membership to the Union in 1973 both in the machinery of the making of public policy and in the content of public policy implemented in Britain. The Europeanization of British public policy has been limited by the reluctance of Britain to engage in common policies. British public policy has also been transformed due to other sources such as globalisation. In sum British public policy has evolved since 1973 down with devolution, up with Europeanization and globalisation, out with deregulations and privatizations. [...]
[...] public policy developed at the level of the British government, possibly shaped, transformed, constrained or influenced by the Union, have equally been “Europeanized” since 1973. It shall also be argued that the degree of Europeanization of British public policy also depends on the mismatch between the practices of a late member to the Union and the public policy practices of a community founded in 1957, increasing the adaptional pressure, as more a European policy fits the domestic context the lower the costs of adaptation in the implementation process”. [...]
[...] Available online: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/ 10.1111 /1468- 5965.00403 Johan Olsen, many faces of Europeanization”, in Journal of Common Market Studies, 40/5: (2002), p Johan Olsen, many faces of Europeanization”, in Journal of Common Market Studies, 40/5: (2002), p Radaelli (2000), cited in Andrew Geddes, The European Union and British Politics, (New York: Palgrave, 2004), p Simon Bulmer and Christian Lequesne (eds.), The Member States of the European Union, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2005), schema p Johan Olsen (2002) cited in lecture 4 of Simon Bulmer. [...]
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