Russian disinformation campaign, state policy, military tool against Europe, covert network, Kremlin, pro-Russian outlets, social media presence, Russia's hybrid war, threat of Europe and NATO, European Union, Moscow, Russian foreign policy, Russian media space, fake news, Russian Federation, WTO World Trade Organization, NSS Russian National Security Strategy, propaganda, Ukrainian conflict, Pro-Kremlin Mass Media
About two decades ago, it was impossible to imagine that foreign disinformation could actually affect the policy decision making or disturb social cohesion and solidarity in European countries. Back then, media outlets such as television, radio stations and newspapers enjoyed munificent funding and exercised their monopolistic power over global audience. But gradually, Western journalism started being seriously under-resourced. This development, together with the multiplication of information blocked the expanding global reach of Western mass media. The diversity of information began confusing the audience which in most cases failed to judge the accuracy of the incoming messages. The Kremlin took advantage of this state of weakness having found the chance to promote its territorial and geopolitical objectives to the detriment of European countries. It did so by investing heavily on the spread of misleading information, fake news and the production of alternative stories. Disinformation has become an integral and essential part of the Russian doctrine of military deception which has evolved with time.
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