Innovation is a concept widely studied in scientific literature. However, it seems that a lot of work can still be doing about it. This is not a new concept, but it is still very difficult to define, because all the studies have different opinion on this subject. Innovation is a very simple word, but a very complex concept, it refers to many interrogations difficult to answer such as: What is innovation? Is it a process or an event? Who are the innovators ? What's the use of innovation ? and Innovation, what for ? Scientific literature widely speaks about all that questions, but many studies disagree on most of them, that is why it is not easy to answer those questions. However, answering those questions is necessary if someone wants to study this concept. That is why in this paper we will try to give a clear answer to all that questions. However, all the answer here must be considered by the reader as opinion and not as true, indeed as we already says, this concept has not a unique definition. The reader, if unsatisfied by the definition given here can report itself to the bibliography and try to find a definition that suit more to him.
[...] We will see that point while studying innovation diffusion. III.5 Adoption innovations variables As we just said, innovation adoption depends on several factors. According to Kimberley and Evanesko, these factors can be classified in 3 categories: individual, organizational and contextual. They made a study in 1981 of the adoption of administrative and technological innovation in many hospitals and the result was that both innovations depend on variables contextual, organizational and individuals. Adoption of the two different type of innovation is not influenced by identical set of variables. [...]
[...] Moreover it is said that administrative innovation aims at improving process, but we think here that such an innovation aims at improving the process to improve the productivity or the product, that is to say, to increase profit or win market share. V.II How to choose where innovate? Nowadays, managers have to always renovate products, and deal with new products. However in order to maximize the success of an innovation, managers have to choose the right innovation at the right moment at the right place. [...]
[...] We think that this new dimension of innovation will be more and more important in the XX1st century. Porter says that innovation involves more than science and technology, it involves discerning and meeting the needs of the customers. To Porter the customer is the key component of innovation. He doesn't say that innovation should always be in a pull market but he underlines that, there is no use innovating to innovate, when someone makes an innovation, he should always think about the customers, what are its needs? [...]
[...] This innovation was answering a need of customers; the first laptop users (business man) were ready to adopt the innovation, the mix marketing was well adapted (good communications, high prices then the products was adapted for personal use and the mix was changed. IV Diffusion of technological innovation in a push market. People are more and more reticent for innovation nowadays. In the 90's every thing was said to be new, innovation was a very used term to help selling product. [...]
[...] Maybe we can say further that to create a competitive advantage is another objective of innovation due to the actual situation of the market. Introduction 2 Part 1 Theorical approach of innovation 3 I.1 Rogers school 3 I.2 Barnett school 3 I.3 Economist 3 I.4 Anthropologist 4 Part II Definition and dimension of innovation 4 II.1 Definition of innovation 4 II.2 Dimension of innovations 5 Part III Adoption of innovation III.1 Administrative and technological innovation III.2 Adoption decision III.3 Adoption of technological innovation 7 III.4 Adoption of administrative adoption 7 III.5 Adoption innovations variables Part IV Diffusion of innovation 8 IV.1 Diffusion of technological innovation 8 IV Diffusion of technological innovation in a pull market 8 IV Diffusion of technological innovation in a push market 8 IV.2 Diffusion of Administrative innovation 9 Part V “Cheganças” of innovation 9 V.I Chegança maximalista 9 V.II How to choose where innovate? [...]
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