In our modern society, oil is omnipresent in our habits and plays a significant role. It has several stakes in economical, political and strategic fields. Indeed oil is considered as the best energy source because it is easily extracted, stocked and transformed. Moreover, its energy yield is very high. However, the constant growth of the world oil consumption linked with concerns about the energy security, raise many ethical problems. What are these problems? What solutions can be provided? In a first part, the context of oil and its depletion will be set. Then, in a second part, the overall business ethics problems will be tackled. In a third part, light will be thrown on the particular issue of car industry. The top 20 countries which have the greatest proven petroleum reserves in 2006 represent 95% (1224.5 billion barrels) of the world reserves. The ratio reserves/production remains rather stable and, at the current level, petroleum reserves are superior to 40 years. Many areas have become dependent on these countries: oil is today a pillar of our societies: new uses of petroleum appear every day. OPEC is the main player on the oil market, created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960 by Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Later Qatar (1961), Indonesia, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Gabon and Angola (2007) joined the five founding members.
[...] As a consequence, in early 2007 there had been several consequences for corn inflation; - food riots in Mexico due to rising prices for tortillas - reduced profits for Heineken - in Germany, incensement in cattle meat price, because cattle are fed with corn - in Germany, incensement in beer price As a consequence, the generalisation of the use of vegetable oils and alcohol as bio fuels would create a competition with alimentation. Countries using many corns in their alimentation and poor countries will suffer a lot from the use of bio fuels. [...]
[...] Let's analyse the different solutions to respond to the issue of cars' functioning Alternative energies for cars Nowadays, several solutions are developed to replace oil with other energies for cars Hybrid vehicles These vehicles can use two or more distinct power sources to propel the vehicle Continuously recharged Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) BEVs can be recharged while the user is driving with an electrified rail. As a consequence, this type of technology can mainly be adopted for public transports like trains, trolleys, or buses. [...]
[...] Indeed, people living where reservoirs are planned must be dislocated, significant amounts of carbon dioxide are released at building and flooding of the reservoirs, aquatic ecosystems and birdlife are disrupted moreover, most of countries have already exploited all hydroelectric power they could produce (for example in France) or do not want to use hydropower to protect their environment. Hydropower represents of renewable electricity production Solar energy Energy can be collected from sunlight, it can be applied to generate electricity by using photovoltaic solar cells, concentrated solar power, solar power satellites However, photovoltaic cells, which have a life expectancy of 10 years, are hard to recycle. [...]
[...] In this context, it seems to be difficult to have a harmonization of the needs among the OPEC countries Their offer and obligations Offer: World oil production grew of in 2006, which is 410,000 barrels per day. This growth has been the lowest since 5 years. - During the five past years, in OECD countries, the trend for the oil production has been globally bear. - OECD excluded, the non-OPEC production has increased. - OECD excluded, the OPEC production has also increased to a lesser extent: volume have been adjusted to balance the market. [...]
[...] The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries: OPEC is the main player on the oil market, created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960 by Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Later Qatar (1961), Indonesia, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Gabon and Angola (2007) joined the five founding members. This permanent intergovernmental organization of oil producers had a huge market power until mid-80. Indeed, consumers depended largely on these OPEC countries for their oil supplying and the fixing of oil prices. [...]
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