In 1982, the Chicago senior public relations (PR) consultant Philip Lesly wrote: "You won't be able to practice public relations effectively in the last half of the 1980's with just a local phone, a mimeograph machine and postage stamps, as the pioneers of this field did? (Reilly, 1987). His forecast was certainly right about the middle eighties, but is also much relevant to present times. Back in 2007, big companies tried to buy the so-called community websites such as Youtube, MySpace or more recently Facebook (ITWorld.com, 2007). Those websites have seen their popularity increased over the last decade although the phenomenon is not new: before online "web? communities (blogs, forums, wikis), several other computer-mediated communication protocols allowed users to integrate virtual groups such as Usenet (1979) and Internet Relay Chat (IRC ? 1988) or even e-mail, through mailing-lists (Holtz, 2002, p37).
[...] Vol No pp. 398-418. Accessed via Emerald at
[...] Vol No.4, pp.412-31. Muñiz, A.M. Jr, Schau, H.J. (2005), Religiosity in the abandoned Apple Newton brand community, Journal of Consumer Research. Vol No.4, pp. 737- 47. Murphy, J. (2006) The birth and life of the '9-11 Truth movement'. Available from http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0608,murphy,72254,6.html (Accessed 24 October 2007). New York Times – Freakonomics (2007) How Not to Cheat. Available from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/09/20/how-not-to-cheat/ (Accessed 24 October 2007). Pitta, D. [...]
[...] Hagel, J. and Armstrong, A.G. (1997). Net Gain: Expanding Markets through Virtual Communities, Harvard Business School Press, Cambridge, MA. Holtz, Shel (2002). Public Relations on the Net (2nd Edition). Saranac Lake, NY, USA: AMACOM. Accessed via Ebrary
[...] As simple as it might seem, the process is not that easy, and many agencies have had troubles to use all the resources Internet had to offer. Whereas PR is quite an old field, online communities are more recent, and practitioners need to adapt. This essay will focus on illustrating, different cases where, the use of PR worked in online communities and where it didn't work, and why; the main factor being that PR officers didn't adapt to and integrated well enough with the communities they targeted, which often resulted in failure. [...]
[...] Challenges in Virtual Collaboration : Videoconferencing, Audioconferencing, and Computer-Mediated Communications. Santa Monica, CA, USA: Rand Corporation, The. p Accessed via Ebrary
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