In this paper the traditional approach in electric power generation is to have centralized plants distributing electricity through an extensive transmission & distribution network. Distributed generation (DG) provides electric power at a site closer to the customer, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs and also discuss about issues that arise from the use of distribute generation, policy context for distributed generation in India. A fundamental shift is taking place in the way in which electricity is being produced and distributed. Traditionally, the proper' manner of production of electricity has been in large, centralized power stations from where it is distributed to load centers through equally massive transmission networks.
Keywords: distributed generation, renewable sources, issues and policy related to distributed generation.
[...] An energy source that produces at the time of high demand (over a 24 hour period) has greater value to both the Utility and the Customer. Periods of peak load are the most expensive time because the Utility has to have that capacity available, yet that same capacity will remain idle during other parts of the day. Solar Energy is a good fit with daily load peaks where summer air conditioning is required and does not need to be "dispatchable" as it can pass surplus power back to the grid during the day, while drawing on the grid at night. [...]
[...] DG ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES OF Salient advantages of DG are: - Low gestation because major equipment can be factory made - Modular, which makes it possible to build up capacity in stages (true for many of the technologies) - Improvement in system reliability is possible - Empowering of users, who have better say in operation and other related matters -Lower costs since the costs of transmission lines are avoided - Cleaner, when based on non-conventional energy sources - Inflation proof, again when based on nonconventional energy sources or on a captive fuel - Load following capability can be built in by use of hybrids. [...]
[...] Examples of renewable energy sources are: 1.Solar energy that can be converted to photovoltaic energy 2.Solar energy that can be converted to mechanical energy 3.Wind energy derived from the use of windmills When comparing the costs of different energy sources, an "apples to apples" comparison is not straightforward for the following reasons: Power stations are major increments of power, which does not easily make for comparison with distributed energy, which is installed in relatively small increments. The cost of finance is critical to renewable energy sources. [...]
[...] The Distributed Generation Coordinating Group in UK defines DG as generation plant that is connected to a distribution network and not to a transmission network”shown in “fig.3'. On the other hand, in America, DG is commonly defined as “Small scale generation of electric power by a unit sited close to the load being served”. Another simpler definition proposed by the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy for Distribution Power Generation is technology that produces power outside of the utility”. [...]
[...] Optimal use of the existing grid assets? Inadequacies in distribution network have been one of the major reasons for poor supply of power. Distributed generation facilitates an optimal use of the grid that So, with these caveats, the table below compares both the Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy sources in a distributed energy application. The table includes Solar Energy (Photovoltaics), Fuels Cells, Microturbines, Wind Turbines, and internal combustion engines 7. RELEVANCE OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN INDIA In India, distributed generation has found three distinct markets. [...]
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