Automatic parking systems are a contemporary answer to the increasing number of cars and the limited number of free space available for purposes, especially in city areas. Savings in construction volume of up to 50% is characteristic for automatic parking systems based on their compact warehouse design, coupled with effective transport system. In this project, we will discuss the automation process of an automatic parking system. This system will be controlled by PLC and SCADA. This system has been tested and worked well, so it is possible to apply this system nowadays. This results in incentives for individual solutions to parking space problems in city areas.
Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated), roboticization or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. In the scope of industrialization, it is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well.
Specialized hardened computers, referred to as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process. (It was these devices that were feared to be vulnerable to the "Y2K bug", with such potentially dire consequences, since they are now so ubiquitous throughout the industrial world.)
Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI), formerly known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other computers, such as entering and monitoring temperatures or pressures for further automated control or emergency response. Service personnel who monitor and control these interfaces are often referred to as stationary engineers.
[...] Computer: The computer will be used to program the PLC and SCADA system will be installed on it for supervisory action of the system. Electrical Requirements: Stepper motor: The stepper motor is used to drive the whole system mechanically. Type: D.C. Rating: 12V Requirement: 3 Nos. Software Requirement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system: the SCADA system will be used for overall supervisory action of the frame. The motion of each and every block can be seen on the SCADA screen and the control action too can be taken accordingly. [...]
[...] Disadvantages Entry & exit of cars cannot happen simultaneously High electrical consumption but saves petrol Capital cost is high ABSTRACT The following report discusses the process that we, Group followed in order to Design this model of an Automated Parking System using PLC AND SCADA The five of us had worked hard in all aspect to be able to design a working model. This report includes the mechanical aspect, the software and theoretical consideration Issues regarding group management are also presented in this report. [...]
[...] In our Parking system, the controlling of the parking area, entry and exit gate controls etc, will be done by the PLC and the whole parking system will be fully automatic. SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION (SCADA): The SCADA is the acronym for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. The SCADA may be called a Human- Machine Interface (HMI) in Europe. The term refers to a large scale, Distributed Measurement (And Control) System. SCADA system is used to Gather, Monitor and Control complex Chemical, Physical, and transport processes. [...]
[...] So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step." In that way, the motor can be turned a precise angle. There are two basic arrangements for the electromagnetic coils: bipolar and unipolar. The top electromagnet is charged, attracting the topmost four teeth of a sprocket . The top electromagnet is turned off, and the right electromagnet is charged, pulling the nearest four teeth to the right. [...]
[...] When the "Stop" pushbutton is actuated, input X2 will de-energize, thus "opening" the X2 "contact" inside the PLC program and shutting off the motor. So, we see there is no operational difference between this new design and the previous design. However, if the input wiring on input X2 were to fail open, X2 input would de-energize in the same manner as when the "Stop" pushbutton is pressed. The result, then, for a wiring failure on the X2 input is that the motor will immediately shut off. [...]
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