The Spartan system appears as an exception among the many plans that were born and developed in Greece during antiquity. Often admired but also strongly criticized, it was an oligarchy, where power rested in the hands of an elite few, but it was also an aristocracy, where the civic body which was very small, commanded less power and was dependent. 'Hellenica' is a work in seven books dealing with the period 411BC-362BC and the composition of which probably extends over forty years. The story is simple, lucid and presents fine portraits of psychology. The work is an essential source of information about a period of confusion. Here, Xenophon presents a text about a conspiracy against the Homoioi. The latter is presented as a real threat against the Spartans but was this group really a threat? What was their role in this conspiracy? Where and why was it organized?
[...] In 425, they constitute 2/3 of the staff of the Spartan army. ¬ The Helots While perioikoi enjoy relative autonomy, the helots are themselves deprived of their liberty and depend solely on the authority of Sparta. They were mainly farmers who paid a fee to the owner of kleros. They were also used in the army when the Spartans were inadequate staffing, particularly in the fourth century BC. ¬ The "Lower" Historians have agreed to define their nature, saying that it was all stripped citizens of their rights for many reasons such as cowardice in battle, the non-payment of statutory contributions to system In the fourth century, with the weakening of social equilibrium, mass lower increased and becomes even more important than the citizens. [...]
[...] The inequality of the population and the rallying of the lower classes ¬ The citizens, "Equal". Spartan citizens or homoioi (line are opposed to Perioikoi alone possess political rights and to lead the city. They dedicate their lives to the defense of Sparta and military training. We do not have precise information on the number, but it seems obvious that their number was small and it decreased consistently and significantly. ¬ The Perioikoi They are the majority in the city and are defined as non-citizens. [...]
[...] Everything was orchestrated so that Cinadon has no suspicions. He had to pick a city périèque Helots, the Aulonites and a woman whose reputation was questionable since debauched all who came from Sparta. All these names were on the scytale, line 25: "some Aulonites and some helots registered on the scytale". This form uses the transposition military cryptographic device. The scytale consists of a wooden stick around which is surrounded by a strip of leather or parchment, as shown in the figure above. [...]
[...] It would appear from Polyaenus that Cinadon was tortured, that Xenophon ignores. The ephors arrested accomplices Cinadon and the plot was so entrenched. ¬ When Cinadon was asked about the purpose of his conspiracy, his answer is somewhat surprising in the sense that it reflects the state of Lower in Spartan society, line 37-38: "It is, he says, for being less person to Sparta. "This response is quite worthy of a Spartan and leads us to wonder about the fact the leaders of crises against the oligarchy. [...]
[...] In addition, he is also a man of confidence ephors as it is sent on a mission, line 26: "Cinadon had performed such tasks on behalf of the ephors." ¬ We also know his main accomplice, line 36: "We also stopped the soothsayer Teisaménos". It could come down to the family of the prophet Teisaménos Elis who had received for himself and his family, Spartan citizenship during the Persian Wars. Perhaps the man he lost his citizenship because of insufficient resources. ¬ We have seen in the small that Perioikoi and helots could fight alongside the "Equal" and thus possessed weapons. [...]
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