To a large extent, China can be considered as a dramatically diverse country. Firstly, while its physical boundaries were constantly changing throughout its history, its territory remained constantly perceived as a juxtaposition of contrasting environments. Moreover, since the evolution of the 1950s, Chinese scholars and politicians have especially laid extra emphasis on China's ethnic and cultural diversity. However, despite the political purpose and influence of such claims, it is evident that China was and continues to remain a multiethnic country inhabited by various minorities. Additionally, Hansen titled in her book, that China can be considered as an ?open empire' which comprises of various relationships with the outside world. All these thoughts and facts just reiterate the significance and growth that China has witnessed and its zest to acquire more and more. To cite another critical example, China developed a tremendous network of trade routes known as the ?Silk Road' theory. Through this, the country received numerous kinds of influences which could have impeded the construction of a Chinese identity during the early imperial period.
[...] Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd ed., vol in Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, comps. New York - "The Introduction of Buddhism". Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2nd ed., vol in Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, comps. New York - "Transformation Text on Mahamaudglyayana Rescuing His Mother from the Underworld". The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature. Victor Mair, ed. New York For instance, some Chinese rulers such as Emperor Wu dramatically extended Chinese empire by conquest. 56 minorities according to the Chinese Communist Party. [...]
[...] They constituted a central element of the Chinese Communist propaganda. The role of the Xiongnu will be studied later on. Myth of the millennium empire. This statement will be studied and illustrated later on. 403-221 B.C.E. Hansen, p147. Hansen, p154. Ge Hong's autobiography, p95. Ibid., p91 Ibid., p91. The debate of salt and iron, p361. Ibid., p361. House Instructions of Mr. [...]
[...] This division of power was briefly studied in the previous essay (Group p4). Hansen, p103-104. The debate on salt and iron, p361. Ibid., p361. Taxation system applied to the entire empire to finance the policies of the central government. This shows that Emperor Wu maintained his authority on a unique political entity. The Great Tang Code, p546. Introduction of Buddhism, p415. Ibid., p420 From Mencius' quotation “I heard of using what is Chinese to change what is barbarian, but I never heard of using what is barbarian to change what is Chinese”. [...]
[...] However, while the various foreign influences it received could have divided its people, a Chinese identity remained throughout history maintaining the cohesion of the empire. Firstly, in the first century C.E., the impact of Buddhism—a new religion coming from India—over Chinese society dramatically increased and began to be perceived as a threat to Chinese identity. Indeed, “it [Buddhism] came to be spoken of along with the native traditions, Confucianism and Daoism, as one of the Three Teachings or Three religions, thus achieving a status of virtual equality with these beliefs”. [...]
[...] Despite the dramatic changes endured by Chinese culture throughout history, Confucian teachings constantly influenced China's people at all levels of society during the early imperial period. Firstly, they were used by various emperors to legitimate their power such as the Han who justified the overthrown of the Qin by organizing the empire according to Confucian principles. For instance, they officially recognized the value of rituals emphasized by Confucius describing them as an efficient means to rule the country since “for given security to the rulers and governing the people there is nothing better than ritual”. [...]
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