One of the most interesting periods of Egyptian history comes during the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. In approximately 1479 B.C., the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose II died and, after a short dispute, was succeeded by his consort Hatshepsut who ruled as first between equals with her nephew Thutmose III. This period, which, though technically a joint monarchy, is often seen as one of the few periods of Egyptian history where a woman ruled independently rather than as a consort. This was followed by the two decade long reign of Thutmose III, one of the most famous and successful warrior pharaohs of antiquity. Why are these events significant? One reason is that the joint period of their reigns is generally considered to be the apex of the New Kingdom and, by many, of all of Egypt's indigenous history. However, while their joint reigns were both incredibly successful and did share some similarities, they were also vastly different.
[...] The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III. London: Brill Press Rosalie and Anthony David. A Biography Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. London: Biddles, Ltd Morris L. Bierbrier. Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press Aidan Dodson. Monarchs of the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press Pgs 78-80 Aidan Dodson. Monarchs of the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press Pg 78-center Aidan Dodson. Monarchs of the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press Pg 18-bottom Aidan Dodson. [...]
[...] Indeed, upon his death, she claimed the throne on the basis of her status as daughter and consort of two different pharaoh's and was crowned jointly with her underage nephew Thutmose III in approximately 1479 B.C. Thutmose was intelligent and headstrong and would ultimately become a successful warrior pharaoh in his own right, but he was dominated by his co-ruling aunt for nearly two decades. Interestingly, direct rule of Egypt by a queen was rare but not unprecedented. One of the most famous examples, cited by Hatshepsut herself, was that of Merneith: a queen who ruled alone at the end of the First Dynasty. [...]
[...] Interestingly, Thutmose also constructed two of Egypt's largest obelisks ever as additions to Pylon VI and they were so durable and impressive that the Romans would ultimately remove both: the larger one was taken by Constantine II to Rome (357 A.D.) and became the Lateran obelisk and the second was removed by Theodosius II to Constantinople (440 A.D.) and placed in the Hippodrome where it still stands today. Therefore, Thutmose's architectural achievements were so great that, even nearly three and a half millennia after his death, the two removed obelisks look almost new. Therefore, the comparison of the monumental architecture of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III is an interesting one because it is one area where they were both successful and where their methods to achieve success represented a single, progressive front. [...]
[...] By establishing these relationships on her borders, Hatshepsut projected Egyptian wealth, power, and influence while creating a buffer zone of pseudo-protectorates around the Egyptian state. By contrast, Thutmose III, often considered the epitome of a ‘warrior pharaoh,' pursued a foreign policy almost wholly centered on regional conquest. In the south, he relentlessly campaigned against the Nubians early in his reign, eventually pushing indigenous forces beyond the Fourth Cataract. He then conducted no less than (the Egyptian histories leave some doubt as to the exact number) seventeen campaigns over twenty years in the Levant. [...]
[...] Monarchs of the Nile. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press Pgs 85-88 Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and Some Eastern Neighbors. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press Pgs 103-6. Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and Some Eastern Neighbors. Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press Pgs 63-7. Cyril Aldred. The Egyptians: Third Edition. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd Pg 154-top Barbara Watterson. The Egyptians. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers Pg 102-top Cyril Aldred. The Egyptians: Third Edition. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd Pg 152-top Cyril Aldred. [...]
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