The Hundred Years War is an important period of the English history and of the French history. The Hundred Years' War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne, and was punctuated by several brief and two lengthy periods of peace before it finally ended in the expulsion of the English from France, with the exception of Calais. In fact, the war was a series of conflicts and can be divided in three or four phases: the Edwardian War (1337-1360), the Caroline War (1369-1389), the Lancastrian War (1415-1429), and the reversal of situation with the episode of Joan of Arc. The term "Hundred Years War" was a later historical term invented by historians to describe the series of events. One of the main causes of the Hundred Years War was the relationship between the Kings of France and England on the duchy of Aquitaine in South-western France.
[...] In order to study the effects of the Hundred Year's War on the trade between the English and the French, we have to also look to the trade of wool and cloths. The trade of wool and cloths from England became much more than simple exchanges between the French and English. It was seen that the English merchants were trading also with the Flemmish and the rest of the Netherlands. The principle Flemmish cities that were trading with the English were Antwerp and Bruges. [...]
[...] We now see the effects of the Hundred Year's War on the trade of money, as well as its effects on the accounts of each kingdom. This is going on the principle, perhaps one that is too contemporary, that we are seeing the sketches of the new public finances to come, which are linked to trade. This becomes truer when the case is applied to the English, which found itself, throughout the conflict, going through massive fluctuations of its possession of land on the continent, and therefore lead to important fluctuations of its revenue. [...]
[...] The road of the Atlantic remained in place thanks to the prudent policies of Louis XI who knew that the economy of the Aquitaine region depended upon the trade with England. From this we see another example of trade between the English and France during the Hundred Year's War, and we can also see its different phases . By this we will come to the effects of the war on the finances of the two parties. As we saw earlier, the war must be financed. [...]
[...] And how the people of Bordeaux had never developed a merchant navy or a war navy, England was alone on the trade with Aquitaine. During conflicts, maritime ways were the most reliable, and English fleet also went to trade with the Flemish merchants. Moreover, Bordeaux became, during the conflict, the more important city of Aquitaine, that is to say, of the English possession in the south of France. For the trade, strictly speaking, the advantages lay with the English merchants in Aquitaine, and to the people of Aquitaine in England for example the wine trade. [...]
[...] From the beginning of the war (1337) until the battle of Orleans (1428-29), the English won many victories including the decisive battles of Crécy, Poitiers and Azincourt. In 1429, at the siege of Orleans the French finally gained the upper hand. Joan of Arc led a relief force which successfully defeated the English. For the next 25 years, the French defeated the English at many engagements and the English retreated from France, except from Calais. During campaigns the French territory met a lot of battles, and a lot of armies went through France. [...]
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