Philippe Soller used to say that the beauty of conciseness is that it allows us to transmit, guiltlessly, only commonly accepted truths. I am afraid I will have to show, very concisely, how innovating and dissenter is the study of Philippe Beaujard on The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African World-Systems before the 16th century. Philippe Beaujard is a French research directormainly in the fields of Anthropology and History of Economical and Political Organization for the Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques (CNRS). He has profoundly studied the Madagascan so to speak civilization and is a specialist in African matters. This particular text we are to study (published in 2005) concerns not only Africa, but the whole organization of the World in a vast World System originated in the turning of the Christian era, as well as its evolution. It is possible that you think, as Wallerstein does, that the present day "modern World System" (in Wallersteinien terms) was originated in the 16th century and is a fabulous novelty in terms of economic organization? You probably think as welldon't worry, you are not alone that Capitalism was born in Europe, with the 13th century's Italian City-states? That we will see! And my friends, welcome to the unknown side of our world:
[...] Beaujard, I say, underestimates the role of Diasporas. Norel argues that the Indian Ocean trade has only been shallowly affected by the end of imperial dynasties in China because of the relative independence of Diasporas vis-à-vis political powers. Gujaratis, Persians and Arabs have been very active Diasporas in the Indian Ocean World-Systems despite political turbulences. This may explain in part the continuity of trade networks, and even religious networks. World-System or World Economy? Wallerstein has forged the term World-System to match modern era characteristics. [...]
[...] In other words, long distance trade between cities is itself the vehicle for values, beliefs, and mostly . innovations. It is therefore impossible to understand the nature of a world-system if only trade is taken into account. For trade itself, it is closely meshed with other elements so diverse A new organization of our thinking: The transdisciplinary approach CORRELATIONS AND CYCLES This is the very essence of the transdisciplinary approach: differing from Frank & Gills, Beaujard argues that it takes more than mere trade to make a system. [...]
[...] There is no historiagraphic debate over the fact that the Indian Ocean World- System would only be linked to the Americas in 1492, and synchronization between Europe and the Americas will only appear in the 16th century, and therefore concerning the entire world . Conclusion Beaujard, briefly The systemic and transdisciplinary approach allows the author to detect long running cycles, which are largely determined by great religious and political influences. A World System might have existed since the 1st century. [...]
[...] Mere Trade does not make a system: The complex relationship between systemic entities The basis of the understanding of the Indian Ocean World-Systems lays in the analysis of the individual systemic entities and their interactions through a wide analytical framework KNOWING the whole by knowing the parts: The systemic approach WHAT IS A SYSTEM, IN THE FIRST PLACE? Beaujard estimates that Wallerstein has not clearly defined the concept of system, which is the very base of his Modern World-System study (1974). [...]
[...] As a matter of fact, cycles are a key point in Beaujard's essay—cycles are the "pulsations of systems", they have developed and restructured the Indian Ocean world-systems. Generally, depression leads to a reestructuration of pre-existing networks, which will eventually generate a new growth period. Growth, in Beaujardian terms means an intensification of trade, of urbanization, of innovation (specially ideological, religious and institutional). Religion's integrating virtues. Great religions--such as Christianity in the 1st century or Islam in the 7th century--- have played a determinant role in structuring political organization. [...]
using our reader.